Major-General. He became a Lieutenant-General in the army in 1879. In 1880 he resigned the post of Governor of the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, on being appointed Surveyor-General of Ordnance. The following year he became Colonel Commandant of the Royal Artillery. He was Chief of the Staff and second in command of the expeditionary force sent to Egypt in 1882 under the command of Sir Garnet Wolseley, and for his services he received the thanks of Parliament and the Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath. In Dec., 1882, he was appointed Governor of Gibraltar, in succession to Lord Napier of Magdala. Sir John Adye is the author of "The Defence of Cawnpore by the Troops under the Orders of Major-General C. A. Windham in Nov., 1857," Lond., 1858; "A Review of the Crimean War to the Winter of 1854–5," Lond., 1860; "Sitana: a Mountain Campaign on the Borders of Affghanistan in 1863," Lond., 1867; and "The British Army in 1875; a reply to Mr. John Holms," 1876. He married in 1856 Mary Cordelia, eldest daughter of the late Vice-Admiral Sir Montagu Stopford, K.C.B.
AIKINS, The Hon. James Cox, Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of Manitoba, in the Dominion of Canada, was born in the township of Toronto, county Peel, Ontario, March 30, 1823. He was educated at Victoria College, Cobourg, and entered public life in 1854, by representing his native county in the Canadian Assembly, which he continued to do until 1861. In the following year he was elected a member of the Legislative Council for the "Home" Division, comprising the counties of Peel and Halton. He continued to sit in the Council until it was abolished by Confederation, after which he was raised to the Senate. In December, 1869, he became a member of the Privy Council, and entered the Macdonald Government as Secretary of State, remaining in that office until the fall of the Government in 1873. In 1872 he framed and carried through Parliament the Public Lands Act of that year, and subsequently organized the Dominion Lands Bureau, a department of government entrusted with the management of the lands acquired in the North-West, chiefly from the Hudson's Bay Company, a department which is now controlled by the Canadian Minister of the Interior. On the return of the Macdonald Government to power, in 1878, Senator Aikins resumed the portfolio of Secretary of State, exchanging it two years later for the office of Minister of Inland Revenue. In 1882 he accepted the Lieutenant-Governorship of the province of Manitoba.
AINSWORTH, William Francis, Ph.D., L.R.C.S., F.S.A., F.R.G.S., was born in 1807. Having travelled abroad, he became, in 1829, editor of the Journal of Natural and Geological Science. On the breaking out of cholera in Sunderland, in 1832, he was one of the first to repair thither in order to study the new epidemic, and he published the result of his observations in a work "On Pestilential Cholera." He was successively appointed surgeon to the cholera hospitals at St. George's, Hanover Square, and at Westport, Ballinrobe, Claremorris, and Newport, in Ireland. Whilst in that country he lectured on geology in Dublin and Limerick. In 1835 he was appointed surgeon and geologist to the Euphrates Expedition, and published "Researches in Assyria, Babylonia, and Chaldæa," 1838, in which year he was also sent by the Royal Geographical Society, and the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, to the Nestorian Christians in Kurdistan. His "Travels in Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Armenia," 1842, and "Travels in the Track of the Ten Thousand