Page:Men of the Time, eleventh edition.djvu/320

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Fnsaia; "One Touch of Nature makeB the Whole Woild Kin," which obtoined the Crystal Palace Silver Medal, 1874; " Ligny," 1875, exhi- bited at the Aca&my, and after- wards at the International Exhibi- tion, Philadelphia, 1876 ; " On the Morning of the Battle of Waterloo " — N^ioleon seated outside a cottage eoDsuhing a map — 1876, in the poe- ■e^on of Captain Bolton ; "Oliver Cromwell at Marston Moor," 1877, in the possession of Mr. John Bhodes, Leeds ; " Ironsides Betom- ing from Sacking a Cavalier's House," 1877 ; " Wellington on his March &om Quatre Bras to Water- loo," 1878, in the possession of Mr. Mappin, Sheffield ; " Westminster," exhibited at the Paris International Bzhibitaon, 1878 ; "On the Evening of the Battle of Waterloo," 1879; "Marlborough after the Battle of fiamillies,"1880; "George II. at t^e Battle of Dettingen," 1881; "A Pause in the Attack : Hougoumont, Waterloo ; " " At the Farm of Mont St. Jean, Waterloo," 1882 ; " At the Sign of the Blue Boar, Holbom ; " and " Charles I. on his Way to Exe- cution," 1883.

CKOOKES, William, FJfc.S., was born in London in 1832. In 1848 he entered the Boyal College of Chemistry as a pupil of the dis- tinguished chemist Dr. Hofmann, now of the University of Berlin, and at the age of seventeen he gained the Ashburton Scholarship. After two years' study he became, first junior, then senior assistant to Dr. Hofmann, unldl 1854, when he was appointed to superintend the meteorological department of the fiaddiffe Observatory at Oxford. In 1855 he became Teacher of Chemistry at the Science CoUe^, Chester. In 1859 he founded tne Chemical News, and he is still its proprietor and editor ; and in 1864 he became editor of the Quarterly Jownal of Science, Mr. Crookes's earliest original researches were begun whilst at the Boyal College of Chemistry, and his first paper.

"On the Seleno-Cyanides," was published in the Quarterly Journal of the Chemical Society in 1851. Since that date he has b«en almost exclusively engaged in original re- search on questions connected with chemistry and physics. In 1861 Mr. Crookes discovered, by means of spectrum observations and chemical reactions, the metal Thallium, and in June, 1862, and Feb. 1863, he laid before the Eoyal Society an account of Thallium, its occurrence, distribution, the method of extraction from the ore, together with its physical characteristics and chemical properties. He also determined its position among ele- mentary bodies, and produced a series of analytical notes on the new metal. In the Journal of the Chemical Society, April, 1864, he collated all the information from. his own researches and from those of others, introducing qualitative and quantitative descriptions of an extended series of the salts of the metal. In June, 1872, he laid before the Boyal Society laborious researches on the atomic weight of thallium, — ^researches that exten- ded over a period of eight years. In 1863 Mr. Crookes was elected a Fellow of the Boyal Society ; in 1865 he discovered the sodium amalgamation process for separat- ing gold and silver from their ores. In 1866 he was appointed by the Government to report upon the application of disinfectants in ar- resting the spread of the cattle plague, which in that year excited much alarm in England. In 1871 he was a member of the English expedition to Oran to report upon the total phase of the solar eclipse which occurred in December of that year. In 1872 he commenced his experiments on " Repulsion re- sulting from Badiation." These experiments were suggested by ob- servations made when weighing heavy pieces of glass apparatus in a vacuum balance diiring re- I searches on the atomic weight of