dence ; " The Life, Times, and Con- temporaries of Lord Cloncurry ; *' "The Friends, Foes, and Adven- tures of Lady Morgan j '* " Lady Morgan, her Career, Literary and Personal ; " " Anecdotal Memoirs of Archbishop Whately" (2 vols.) ; " Lord Edward Fitzgerald and his Betrayers, or Notes on the Com- wallis Papers ; " *' The Sham Squire and the Informers of 1798" (of which 16,000 copies are known to have been sold) j " Ireland before the Union, with the unpublished Diary of Lord Chief Justice Clon- mel, 1774-1798 (6 editions) j" " Irish Wits and Worthies, with Dr. Lani- gan, his Life and Times ; *' " Charles Lever — a Biography ; " and several pamphlets, historical and critical. Mr. Fitzpatrick's books have been reprinted in America. In Ireland he has been invited to preside at some meetings of the Historical Society of Trinity College, and his books have been quoted in the judgments of the Lord Chief Jus- tice of the Queen's Bench, espe- cially in the O'Keefe case. He has contributed biographic sketches to the Athenaeum, to Fraser, to the University, to the "Imperial Dic- tionary of Biography, and to some of the trimestrial reviews. He is a member of the Eoyal Irish Aca- demy, an Honorary Member of the Boyal Hibernian Academy of Arts, and onfe of the executive of the Royal Dublin Society. In 187G he was elected by the Eoyal Hiber- nian Academy its Professor of His- tory, an office formerly held by Petric. In 1883, Mr. Fitzpatrick was appointed by the Viceroy for the second time High SherSf of the county of Longford.
FLAMMAEION, Camtlle, a Ih^ench astronomer, born at Mon- tigny-le-Eoi (Haute Marne), Feb. 25, 1842, received his education in the ecclesiastical seminary of Lan- gres and at Paris, was a student in the Imperial Observatory from 1858 till 1862, when he became editor of the Cosmos, and was ap-
pointed scientific editor of the Si^cle in 1865. At this period he obtained, by a series of lectures on astronomy, a certain reputation, which was subsequelitly increaaed by his giving in his adhesion to
- ' spiritiialism." In 1868 he made
several balloon ascents, in order to study the condition of the atmo- sphere at great altitudes. H. Flammarion is the author of "La Pluralite des Mondes Habites." 1862, 15th edit. 1869 ; " Les Mondes Imaginaires et les Mondes B^ls," 1864; "Les Merveilles Celestes," 1865 J "Dieu dans la Nature," 1866; "Histoire du Ciel/' 1867; " Contemplations Scientifiques," 186S; "Voyages A^riens/' 1868; "L'Atmosphfere," 1872; " Histoire d'un Plan^te," 1873; and "Les Torres du Ciel," 1876. In June, 1880, the French Academy awarded the Montyon prize to M. Flam- marion, for his work "L'Astrono- mie Populaire."
FLEMING, Sandpord, C.E., C.M.G-., late Engineer-in-Chief of the Canadian Pacific Eailway, was bom at Kirkcaldy, Fifeshire, Scot- land, on the 7th January, 1827, and emigrated to Canada in the year 1845. He received his early train- ing in Scotland, and served his apprenticeship as an engineer and surveyor. For a number of years, after his arrival in Canada, he was employed on the engineering staff of the Northern Eailway, and ren- dered important service in that and other public enterprises. In 1863 he was the bearer to the English government of a memorial from the settlers of the Eed Eiver district (now the province of Manitoba), praying for railway communicaticm with the older provinces of Canada, and on that mission had repeated conferences with the late Duke of Newcastle, then Colonial Secretary. This project ultimately developed into the greater scheme of a Trans- continental line of railway connect- ing the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. The first link in this chain