3b. 28, 1825. In 1849 he d at West Point, and was I as second-lieutenant of 3 on the fortifications in I Koads. From 1852 till
performed the duties of -instructor in practical en- j at West Point. Soon after aencement of the civil war Lade Captain of Engineers^
charge of the operations rort Pulaski, on the Savan- r, Georgia, in Feb., 1862. been promoted to the rank iier-General of Volimteers, pdered to the West as Com- of the district of Western , and soon after was ap- bo a division in the Army ucky. Ordered to South , he took command of the 3es eng^ed in the siege of m. For his services during paign he was promoted to of Major-General of Volun- !e subsequently co-operated L. Sherman in his movement South Carolina, and after ender of the Confederate IS, in June, 1865, placed at
of the new department of irolina. After the close of be was mustered out of the r service, but holds the najor in the United States Engineers, and is engineer 9 of the defences of the At- )ast. He is the author of ctical Treatise on Limes, ic Cements, and Mortars " " Siege and Reduction of aski, Georgia (1863) ; "Offi- orts of Operations against Slices of Charleston Har- L864); "A Supplementary n the Engineer and Artil- rations " (1865) ; " Coignet- ad other Artificial Stone" "A Practical Treatise on stion of Roads, Streets, and its" (1876); and "Report gth of the Building Stones nited States" (1876). He
contributed scientific ar- Appleton's " American
Cyclopffidia" (1873-76), and to Johnson's *' Universal CyclopaBdia " (1871-77).
GILMAN, Daniel Coit, LL.D., was born at Norwich, Connecticut, July 6, 1831; A.B. (Yale Coll.), 1852. He was Superintendent of Schools in New Haven from 1856 to 1860 ; State Superintendent of Schools in Connecticut, 1865-66 ; Librarian of Yale, 1856-65 ; Profes- sor of Physical and Political Geo- graphy at Sheffield Scientific School, 1863-72; President of the University of California, 1872-75 ; and since 1875 has been President of Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. He is a member of the American Aca- demy of Arts and Sciences, of the American Philosophical Society, of the American Oriental Society, &c., and was elected President of the American Social Science Associa- tion in 1879. He received the de- gree of LL.D. from Harvard in 1876. He is the author of many magazine articles and educational reports, and of " Historical Addresses," 1859 ; " Inaugural Address and Re- ports, University of CaUfomia," 1872.
GIRAUD, Herbert, M.D., Deputy Inspector-General of Her Majesty's Bombay army, was born at Faversham, Kent^ in 1817, of a Waldensian family. He graduated with honours in 1840 in the Uni- versity of Edinburgh, where he was a member of the so-called " Oinero- mathic Brotherhood," of which the naturalist, Edward Forbes, the two Goodsirs, George Wilson, J. Hughes Bennett, and others since eminent in science, were members. In 18-12 he entered the H.E.I. Co.'s Bombay Medical Service, and in that year the Linnsean Society published in their Transactions his "Observa- tions on Vegetable Embryology," which were subsequently embodied in several of the British and foreign systematic works on botany. In 1846 he was appointed Professor of Chemistry and Botany in the Grant Medical College, Bombay, of which