regarded as the most thorough- going supporter in Germany of the Darwinian doctrine of develop- ment, of which, as a bold theorist, he drew aU the conclusions from which Dr. Darwin himself in the first instance held aloof. His prin- cipal works are: — "General Mor- phology of Organisms," 2 vols., 1866; "Natural History of Crea- tion," 7th edit., 1879; "On the Origin and Genealogy of the Human Race," 3rd edit., 1873; "On the Division of Labour in Nature and Human Life," 1869; "Life in the Greatest Depths of the Ocean," 1870; "The Origin of Man; a His- tory of the Development of Man- kind," 3rd edit., 1877; "The Aims and Methods of the Contemporary History of Development," 1875; "The Theory of Development in its Relation to General Science," 1877; "Das Protistenreich," a popular review of the domain of the lowest forms of life, 1878 ; " Free Science and Free Teaching," 1878, against Virchow ; "Collected Popu- to Essays on the Theory of Deve- lopment," 1878 et seq. An English translation of his work on "The Evolution of Man ; a popular expo- sition of the principal points of Human Ontogeny and Phylogeny," appeared in 1879.
HADEN, Francis SETMorB, F.R.C.S., was born Sept. 16, 1818, at 62, Sloane Street, London, and educated at University College and at the Sorbonne, Paris. He became in 1842 a member and in 1857 a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. The Inter- national Jury Report on Surgical Instruments, drawn up by Mr. Haden, was acknowledged by all the medical journals of the time, foreign as well as English, to be an exhaustive essay on the then state of European Surgery, and was the first public document in which the operation of Ovariotomy (till then universally condemned) was recommended. Three letters, contributed by him to the Times,
under the title of " Earth to Earth," in Jan., May, and Jime, 1875,to plead for a change of system in our mode of disposing of the bodies of the dead, and in condemnation of the pro- posals of the advocates of crema- tion, attracted much attention, and brought about considerable amelio- ration in the practices pursued by undertakers and cemetery com- panies, and led to a system of interment founded on reason and sanitary consideration, which has ever since been successfully carried out at Woking. Mr. Haden is also the Author of certain art publica- tions, which , undertaken for the pur- pose of restoring original engraving as it was practised by the old mas- ters, and as a relief from the cares of practice, have acquired for the author a European reputation. These publications, began in 1858, and still going on, have been partly artistic and partly literary, — the artistic part of the work consist- ing : — (1.) Of a large folio work (in French), entitled, " Etudes k TEau Forte," and published in Paris and in London in 1865 and 1866 ; (2.) Of a large number of engfraved plates (185 in all), which have been catalogued and de- scribed by Sir Wilfiam R. Drake, F.S.A., under the title of "The Etched Work of Francis Seymour Haden;" and (3.^ Of many studies and drawings, wnich have not yet been published, and of other plates, not yet included in Sir William Drake's catalogue. The literary portions of the work have consisted chiefly of a Monograph on the etched work of Rembrandt; of Lectures, of which a course of three were delivered at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, in the spring of 1878 ; and of Notes " About Etch- ing," published by the Fine Art Society. Several essays, also, from the pens of other writers, have ap- peared from time to time on the work of Mr. Haden — notably two in the Gazette des Beaux Arts, by M. Philipjje Burty, in 1864 ; and in