of twenty-one he became a printer. He then studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1833 and practised until 1848. From 1836 to 1840 he was a member of the Maine legis- lature, serving as Speaker in 1837, 1839, and 1840. He was a Member of Congress from 1843 to 1847; a State representative again in 1847 ; and U.S. Senator from 1848 to 1857. He was Governor of Maine from Jan. 7 to Feb. 20, 1857, resigning the position on his re-election to the Senate. He was elected Vice-Presi- dent of the U.S. on the ticket with Mr. Lincoln in 1860, and on the expiration of his term in 1865 was made Collector of Customs for the port of Boston. This position he retained until he was again chosen to the Senate in 1869, where he remained until 1881, when he was appointed Minister to Spain.
HAMMOND (Lord), The Eight Hoif. Edmttnd, son of the late Mr. George Hammond, for many years Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, born in London in 1802, was educated at Harrow, Eton, and University College, Oxford, where he took his B.A. degree in 1825, and was afterwards elected to a fellowship. He entered the Civil Service of the Crown in 1828, as a clerk in the Privy Council Office, whence in the following year he was transferred to the Foreign Office. Here he rose by gradual promotion until, in April, 1854, he was ap- pointed Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. He was sworn a Privy Coimcillor in 1866. In March, 1874, he was raised to the peerage by the title of Baron Ham- ihond, of Kirk Ella, Kingston-on- Hull. He married, in 1846, Mary Frances, third daughter of the late Lord Robert Kerr, and grand- daughter of William, fifth Marquis of Lothian, by whom he had issue several daughters, but no son.
HAMMOND, William Alex- ander, M.D., born at Annapolis, , Maryland, Aug. 28, 1828. He graduated M.D. in the University
of New York in 1848, and in June, 1849, entered the medical service of the United States army as assistant-surgeon, in which he re- mained till 1860, having attained the staff rank of Captain. In 1860 he was appointed Professor of Ana- tomy and Physiology in the Uni- versity of Maryland. At the com- mencement of the civil war he resigned his professorship, and entered the army almost at the bottom of the list of assistant- surgeons. But on the reorganiza- tion of the Medical Bureau in April, 1862, he was, at the earnest solicitation of the Sanitary Commis- sion, appointed Surgeon-General of the army, with the rank of Bri- gadier-General. He retained this position until 1864, when he was dismissed from the service on the groimd of irregularitLes in the award of contracts. This sentence was reversed by the P^sident and Congress in 1878, when he was restored to his full rank and placed on the retired list. On his ^igminaal from the army in 1864 he was ap- pointed Professor in the Bellevue- Hospital Medical College, New York, and Physician-in-Chief to the New York State Hospital for Diseases of the Nervous System, a position which he still holds. He is also the editor of The Journal oj Psychological Medicine, and has pub- lished " Military Hygiene " (1863) ; "Physiological Memoirs" (1863); " Venereal Diseases " (1864) ; " Sleep, and its Nervous Derange- ments " (1869) J " The Physics and Physiology of Spiritualism" (1870) ; " Medico-Legal Study of the Case of Daniel McFarland" (1870) ; "A Treatise on Diseases of Uie Ner- vous System" (1871); "Insanity in its Relations to Crime " (1873) ; "Over Mental Work, and Emo- tional Disturbances " (1878) ; " Cerebral Hypersemia" (1878) ; and "Fasting Girls" (1879).
HAMPTON, Wade, born in Charleston, South Carolina, March 28, 1818. His father, who died in