and has published five lectures on
- • Light of the Holy Spirit in the
World'* (London, 1873), ^ye others on "Who is Jesus Christ?" and "The Spirit of Faith," ^ve lec- tures, 1875. On Dr. Ward's re- tiring from the Dvhlin Retnew Bishop Hedley was appointed its editor, and the first number issued under his superyision appeared in Jan. 1879.
HEFELE, The Right Est. Kabl Joseph yon, D.D., Bishop of £ottenberg,a distinguished German ecclesiastical historian, born March 15, 1809, at Unterkochen, in Wtlr- temberg, district of Aalen, received a public school education at EU- wangen and Ehingen ; next applied himself for five years at the Uni- versity of Tilbingen to philosophi- cal and theological studies, and graduated there in 1834. In 1836 he settled as private tutor, and in 1840 received a professorship in the Catholic theological faculty at Tilbingen, where he represented the departments of Church history. Christian archaeology andpatrology. In 1838 he became Doctor of Di- vinity, and afterwards Knight of the Order of the Wiirtemberg Crown. From 1842 to 1845 he was a member of the Wiirtemberg Chamber of Deputies. He was consecrated Bishop of Bottenberg in 1869, and shortly afterwards proceeded to Borne to take part in the proceed- ings of the Vatican Council. It was reported that he was an *' in- opportunist ; " but however this may be, he has given in his entire adhesion to the definition of the doctrine of the infallibility of the Pope. In Oct. 1874, he declined the archbishopric of Freiburg offered to him by the Baden Government, on the ground that he could not take the oath which was demanded from the Bishops in Prussia and Baden, and could not promise obedience to the newly-promulgated ecclesiastical laws. His most im- portant work of research is the " History of Councils " (published
in parts at Tubingen, 1855-69), based on the most profound study of original materials. It has been translated into English by the Eev. Wm. R. Clark, M.A., vicar of Taimton, under the title of "A History of the Christian Councils, from file Original Documents, to the close of the Council of Nic«ea, A.D. 325," 8vo, Edinburgh, 1871. Among Bishop Hefele's other works are especially to be noticed : — " The Introduction of Christianity into South- Western Germany," Tubin- gen, 1837; Cardinal Ximenes and the Ecclesiastical Condition of Spain in the 15th Century," 2nd edit., Tilbingen, 1851; and "Contribu- tions to Church History, Archaeology , and Liturgy (LUurgik)" in two parts, Tilbingen, 1864-65. He has also published a Selection of the Homilies of Chrysostom in a Ger- man translation, Chrysostomus- Postille, 3rd edit., Tilbingen, 1857, and an edition of the works of the Apostolic Fathers, 4th edit.> Tubin- gen, 1855. An English translation by the Rev. Canon Dalton, of his "Life of Cardinal Ximenes," ap- peared at London in 1860.
HEFNER -ALTENECK, Jacob Heinbioh von, a German writer on art, was born at Aschaffenburg, May 20, 1811; went through a complete course of artistic educa- tion, and then devoted himself to the diligent study of the history of art, particularly during the mediae- val period. In 1853 he became attached to the Museum at Munich, and in 1863 he was appointed one of the Keepers of the royal collec- tion of prints and drawings. In 1868 he was nominated Conservator- General of the artistic monuments of Bavaria, and Director of the Bavarian National Museum. Among his publications may be mentioned : " Trachten des christl. Mittelalters nach gleichzeitigen Kunstdenkma- len," 3 parts, Mannheim, 1840-54; in collaboration with Becker^ "Kunst- werke und Gerathschaften des Mit- telalters und der Renaissance'