was appointed in 1839 assistant Town Clerk. In 1873 he was put upon the commission of the peace for the county palatine of Lsmcas- ter. Mr. Herford originated and largely conducted the following associations in Manchester and the neighbourhood : — The three Ly- ceums — cheap literary and recrea- tive institutions for the working classes; the Ltuicashire and Che- shire Association of Mechanics' Institutions; the Young Men's Anti-Monopoly Association ; the Poor Law Association; the Man- chester Church Institute ; and the Free and Open Church Society (1857), whose operations for the last quarter of a century have been directed to restoring the ancient freedom of parish churches to rich and poor alike^ and for providing that in the churches the pa- rishioners should be freely admitted to all the services. The system of " Free and Open Churches " ori- ginated by Mr. Herford was very widely adopted, not only in his own neighbourhood, but throughout the kingdom. In many old parish churches pews illegally appropriated were restored to the parishioners. In many recently-built churches the weekly offertory and the free and open system were introduced in consequence of the energetic advocacy of it by Mr. Herford and those associated with him. In other cases a sort of compromise between the two rival systems has been effected, in virtue of which at least one-half of the. church, and that as advantageously situated and in every respect as commodious as the other moiety, has been made free and open to all parishioners, without distinction. In 1840 Mr. Herford projected The North of England Magazine, a short-lived periodical : and in 1879- he formed the National Committee for abolish- ing Purchase in the Church. Among Mr. Herford 's writings are pam- phlets on Free and Open Churches ; " " Law of Free Parish
Churches ; " and " Pew-rents fatal to the National Church."
HERGBNROTHER, His Emi- NENCE Josef, Cardinal-Deacon of the Holy Roman Church, was born at Wiirzburg, in Bavaria, Sept. 15, 1822, and studied in his native city, at Mtmich, under Dr. D6llinger, and at Rome. In 1852 he was ap- pointed Professor of Canon Law and Church History in the Univer- sity of Wiirzburg, having in the previous year (1851) published at Ratisbon "De Catholicse EcclesisB Primordiis recentiorum Protestan- tium Systemata expenduntur disser- tatione historico-dogmatica, qaam auctoritate et consensu illustris Theologorum ordinis in alma uni- versitate Ludovico - Maximilianea legendi facultatem rite adepturus publice defendit J. Hergenr5ther, S. Theol. Doctor." Dr. Hergen- rttther won the admiration and con- fidence of Catholic Grermany by his treatise on "The State of the Ch\irch since the French Revolu- tion " (" Die Kirchenstaat seit der f ranzdsichen Revolution " Freiburg im JBreisffau, 1860), in which he thoroughly treats of not only the external relations and vicissitudes of Rome and the patrimony of St. Peter, but also, and principally, of the religious, social, and agricul- tural condition of the people. In his work on the origin of the Grreek Schism, Dr. Hergenr5ther next came forward as the defender of the Holy See, which had been taunted by Dr. Pilcher with having given rise to that lamentable separation. In order to perform his task thoroughly the learned professor visited the principal European libraries, and was occu- pied for several years in examining the most important manuscripts bearing on Photius, and the in- fluence he exercised on the Church of Constantinople. The result was the publication of " Monumenta grsBca ad Photium ej usque his- toriam pertinentia," Greek and Latin, Ratisbon, 1869 ; and " Pho-