tius. Patriarch von Constantinopel^ Sein Leben, Seine Schriften, und das griechlsche Schisma^" Regens- burg, 1876, etc. By these works on Photius Dr. Hei*genrOther proved himself to be one of the best Greek | scholars of our time. No sooner | had Dr. Dullinger taken a hostile position against Pius IX. and the CEeumenical Vatican Council than Dr. Hergenr6ther opposed him in several minor worlra ; in *' Anti- Janus. Eine historisch-theologische Kritik der Schrift * Der Papst und das Concil, von Janus, Frei- burg im Breisgau, 1870 ("Anti- Janus : an historico-theolo^ical Criticism of the work entitled ' The Pope and the Council, by Janus ;' translated from the German by James Burton Robertson, with an introduction by him, giving a history of Gallicanism from the reign of Louis XIV. down to the present time/' Dublin, 1870); and lastly in his Katholische Kirche and christlichen Staat in ihrer ^es- chichtlichen Entwickelung una in Beziehung auf die Fragen der Gegenwart," Preiburp im Breis- gau, 1872 (translated mto English under the title of " Catholic Church and Christian State: A series of essays on th« relation of the Church to the Civil Power," 2 vols., 1876). This latter work was also trans- lated into Italian. Profesor Her- genrother has likewise published
- ' Cardinal Maury. Ein Lebensbild
aus Dem Ende des vorigen und dem Anfange des jetzigen Jahr- hunderts," Wilrzburg, 1878 ; and a " Handbook of General Ecclesiasti- cal History " (" Handbuch der all- gemeinen Kirchengeschichte,"Prei- burg, vol. I. 1876, vol. II. 1877, supplemental volume, 1880). He was one of the German divines who. at the invitation of Pius IX., took part in the preparatory labours of one of the theological commissions that preceded the assembling of the Vatican Council. He was created and proclaimed a cardinal May 12, 1879, with the diaconal
"title" of S. Nicola in Carcere. His Eminence is Prefect of the Apostolic Archives.
HERKOMER, Hubebt, A.B.A., was born in 1849, at Waal, in Bavaria. His father, Lorenzo Her- komer, who is a skilful wood-carver, emigrated with his family, in ISol, to the United States, but in 1857 sought to improve his fortunes in England, and settled in South- ampton. As a boy, Hubert was hindered much in his education by ill health and poverty ; but at thirteen he entered the Art School at Southampton, and won a bronze medal there. In 1865 he went to Munich with his father (who had been commissioned to carve copies of figures by Peter Vischer), and while there the young artist was aided in his studies by Professor Echter. In 1866 he entered the schools at South Kensington, but after five months was obliged to return to Southampton, where he was instrumental in establishing a drawing-school for the study of the living model ; and at Christmas in that year he and the young artists associated with him held an ex- hibition of their works, in which he sold his first picture. In 1867 he went again to South Kensington for a few months, and in the following year he established himself in the village of Hythe, and there painted two pictures, which he exhibited at the Dudley gallery ( 1868) . He then came to London, and occupied him- self successfully with water-colour painting and designing for the wood engraver. In 1871 Mr. Herkomer was invited to join the Institute of Painters in Water Colours, and to the gallery of this Society, and subsequently to the Grosvenor and the Academy Exhibitions, he has contributed many drawings, chiefly of Bavarian subjects, and latt^ly some with figures or portraits about the scale of Nature. The oil picture, " After the Toil of the Day," in ihe Academy Exhibition of 1873, ex- tended his reputation and prepared