JAMES, Henry, Jun., novelist and essayist, was born in New York City, 18-43. He is the son of the late Eey. Henry James, a forcible writer on religious topics (bom 1811, died 18 Dec, 1882). In his eleventh year his family went abroad, and after some stay in England made a long sojourn in France and Switzerland. On their return to America in 1860 they first resided in Newport, Rhode Island, removing to Cambridge, Massa- chusetts, in 1866. Mr. James at- tended the Harvard Law School for a year or two while his family were at Newport, but a few years after their removal to Cambridge he went abroad, where he has since remained, with the exception of occasional brief visits home. He has been a contributor to most of the American magazines, but his celebrity rests mainly upon his novels, which usually deal with the American as found abroad, and have been called of an international character. His published books are: "A Passionate Pilgrim, and other Tales," " Roderick Hudson," " Transatlantic Sketches " (1875) j The American " (1877) ; " Watch and Ward,'* "French Poets and Novelists" (1878); The Euro- peans," "Daisy Miller," "An In- ternational Episode " (1879) ; " Hawthorne " (one of the " Eng- lish Men of Letters" series), "A Bundle of Letters," "Confidence," " Diary of a Man of Fifty " (1880) j " Washington Square," " The Por- trait of a Lady" (1881).
JAMES, Thomas Lemuel, jour- nalist and politician, born at TJtica, New York, March 29, 1831, was a upil in tiie Utica Academy until e was fifteen years of age. His first journalistic experience was upon The Liberty Press, an anti- slavery paper. Entering actively upon political life before he had even attained his majority, he was made associate editor (1849) of The Madison County Journal, the organ of the Seward wing of the Wnig
party in New York. Upon the formation of the Republican party- Mr. James entered the new or^^ajii- zation with zeal, and during the Fremont canvass for the presi- dency he became sole proprietor and editor of the Journal, which he retained for ten years. During part of this time he was a collector of tolls on the Erie Canal, which is owned by the State of New York. Upon the inaugtiration of President Lincoln in 1861 he was appointed Inspector of Customs, and accord- ingly sold his paper, and removed to New York City. In 1874 he was made Weigher, and in 1876 Deputy Collector of Customs. The effici- ency he displayed in all these positions induced President Grant, in 1877, to make him Postmaster of New York City, a position that he filled with such signal ability as to effect almost a revolution in the postal administration of that city. He removed the office entirely " out of politics," making merit the only test for appointments and promotions, largely increased its revenues, intr<Kluced many me- chanical improvements, and in other ways added greatly to its usefulness. His success was so marked that his appointment to President Garfield's Cabinet as Postmaster-General in March, ISSl, was received with universal satis- faction by the people of the United States. His administration of that department was unfortunately too short for him to accomplish much. The assassination of Mr. Garfield led him to tender his resignation to Mr. Arthur, and in December, 1881, he retired from political life to accept the presidency of the Lincoln National Bank in New Yoric City. JAPAN, Bishop OP. (iSe^ Poolk.) JAPAN, Tycoon op. (See Stots Babhi.)
JAY, Habbiett, novelist, was born Sept. 22, 1867, in the neigh- bourhood of London. Her first work, the " Queen of Connaught,"