1876, he founded The Society for the Abolition of Vivisection/' and he was greatly instrumental in obtaining the appointment of a Boyal Commission to inquire into the practice of subjecting live animals to experiments for scientific purposes, and gave evidence be- fore it on three days. In conse- quence of the controversies between Mr. Jesse and Dr. Ferrier, Dr. J. Crichton Browne, Dr. T. Lauder Brunton, Mr. T. Spencer Wells, Professor Owen, Mr. Darwin, and other distinguished scientific men and members of the medical pro- fession. Government now reverses the decisions of the Presidents of the Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, and refuses point blank to grant licences to some physiolo- gists of widespread repute. The Uoences were applied for for carry- ing on investigations which those gentlemen declared to be of the highest value to medical science. The editor of the leading medical journal of England, the Lancet, stated in a leading article on Nov. 19, 1881, that "the part of physiological research which de- pends on vivisection is being gradually stamped out. On March 9, 1882, by invitation of the President, Mr. Jesse read a paper in Birmingham at the Birmingham and Midland Counties brandi of the British Medical Association, controverting the assumption that " scientific surgery is founded upon vivisection." The vigorous and sustained assaults made by Mr. Jesse on the physiological citadel forced the Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons to found, on March 28, 1882, an "Association for the Pro- tection of the Bight of Vivisection,*' entitled the "Association for the Advancement of Medicine by Be- search." Owing to the persevering exertions of the Society created by Mr. Jesse, the agitation against the practice at painnilly experimenting upon animals for scientific pur- leoB has now. Professor Virchow
admits, " in aU countries attained a dangerous degree of vigour," and spread widely through England and Europe. Mr. Jesse is honorary secretary of the Society, and has written many pamphlets on the subject of vivisection.
JESSOPP, Augustus, D.D., was bom in 1824, at Albury Place, Cheshunt, Herts, where his father was J.P. for the county and a Deputy-Lieutenant. He was edu- cated at St. John's College, Cam- bridge, of which he is M.A. 5 and he is D.D. of Worcester College, Oxford. He was appointed Head- Master of Helston Grammar School, Cornwall, 1855; Head-Master of Norwich School, 1859 ; and Bector of Seaming, Norfolk, 1879. He was preacher before the University of Oxford in 1870. Dr. Jessopp is the author or editor of "Donne's Essays in Divinity," with life, 1865; "Tales byEmile Souvestre, with Notes and Life of the Author " 1860, which has passed through three editions; "Norwich School Sermons" 1864; "A Manual of the Greek Accidence," 1865, 3rd ed. 1879 ; " The Fragments of Primi- tive Liturgies and Confessions of Faith contained in the writings of the New Testament," 1872; " Letters of Father Henry Wali>ole, S.J.," from the MSS. at Stonyhurst College, 1873 ; " One Generation of a Norfolk House, a contribution to Elizabethan History," 1878, 2nd ed. 1879; "Husenbeth's Em- blems of Saints," edited for the Norfolk ArchaBological Society, 1882; and contributions to tibe Edinhurgh Review, Nineteenth Cen- tury, and AthencBum. He has like- wise contributed many papers on historical and antiquarian sub- jects in the Proceedings of the Norfolk and Norwich Arcncdological Society, of which he is Literary Secretary.
JEX-BLAKB, Thb Ret. Thokas William, D.D., only son of Thomas Jex-Blake, Esq., J.P. for the county of Norfolk, and Maria Emily,