Vermont, October 5, 1830. His father was a Scotchman, and pastor of Baptist churches in Vermont and New York. After his graduation as B.A. from Union College, Mr. Arthur studied law and began the practice (1850) in New York City, where he has since resided. Originally a Whig, he joined the Republican Party on its formation, and soon became a prominent leader in New York. At the outbreak of the civil war he was entrusted by Gov. Morgan with the arming and subsisting of the troops raised in New York, and was successively made Engineer-in-Chief, Inspector-General, and Quartermaster-General, equipping and sending to the field sixty-eight regiments of infantry, six battalions and ten batteries in the space of four months. In 1871 he was appointed Collector of the port of New York City, which position he retained until 1878, when he was removed by President Hayes. When the dissensions arose in the Republican Party, Mr. Arthur placed himself on what is known as the "Stalwart" side. At the National Convention in Chicago in 1880 the Anti-Stalwart wing was successful in preventing the nomination of Gen. Grant to the Presidency, and in securing that of Mr. Garfleld. Mr. Arthur was then nominated as Vice-President in order that both wings of the Party might be represented on the ticket. The Republicans were successful in the ensuing election, and the assassination of President Garfield within six months of his inauguration by Charles J. Guiteau, raised Mr. Arthur to the Presidency, September 19, 1881.
ARTHUR, The Rev. William, Wesleyan minister, was born in Ireland, 1819, and educated at Hoxton College. In 1839 he went to India, where he was engaged for some years in missionary work. He resided in France from 1846 to 1848, since which time he has held the office of Secretary to the Methodist Missionary Society. For some years Mr. Arthur was President of the Methodist College at Belfast, which office he vacated in 1871. He is author of "A Mission to the Mysore, with scenes and facts illustrative of India, its People, and its Religion" (1847); "The Successful Merchant: sketches of the life of Mr. Samuel Budgett" (1852)—this has been translated into Welsh; "The Tongue of Fire, or True Power of Christianity" (1856); "Italy in Transition: public scenes and private opinions in the spring of 1860, illustrated by official documents from the Papal archives of the revolted Legations" (1860); and numerous pamphlets.
ASHLEY, The Hon. Evelyn, M.P., is the second surviving son of the Earl of Shaftesbury, by his marriage with Lady Emily Cowper, eldest daughter of Peter Leopold, fifth Earl Cowper, and was born in July, 1836. He was educated at Harrow, and graduated M.A. at Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1858. He was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in Trinity term, 1863, and joined the Oxford circuit. Mr. Ashley, who is a magistrate for Dorset and the county Sligo, unsuccessfully contested the Isle of Wight in February, 1874; he was, however, elected for Poole in May of the same year, and continued to represent that borough down to 1880, when he was elected for the Isle of Wight. Mr. Ashley was formerly private secretary to the late Lord Palmerston, and from 1863 to 1874 he was a Treasurer of County Courts. When the Liberals returned to power in April, 1880, Mr. Ashley was appointed Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade, and in May, 1882, he was chosen by Mr. Gladstone to succeed Mr. Courtney in the office of Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies. He is also second Church Estates Commissioner. Mr. Ashley married in 1866 Sybella Charlotte, daughter of Sir Walter Rockliffe Farquhar, bart.