against Eossuth, but it was finallT carried by 141 votes to 52. Kossuth was engaged for several years in writing his "Memoirs/' the last volume of which appeared in 1882.
KRUPP, Fbbdbbick, a celebrated metal-founder, proprietor of the enormous manufactory at Essen, in Bhenish Prussia, originally established by his father in 1827. At first the elder Erupp had only two workmen, and the works were conducted on the most limited scale; but under the supervision of the son they attained to their present colossal proportions. Frede- rick Erupp is the discoverer of the method of casting steel in very large masses. He sent to the London Exhibition of 1851 a block weighing forty-five German quin- tals ; and at the present time he is able to cast a block weighing more than four thousand quintals. Herr Erupp manufactures a large num- ber of articles used for peaceful purposes, but his name is more particularly associated with the gigantic steel siege g^uns which the Germans used with such terrible effect against the city of Pans. In 1864 the Eine of Prussia offered him letters of nobility, which he declined to accept.
EtJCEEN, Fbbdebick William, composer, was born Nov. 10, 1810, at Bleekede, in Lilneburg. His youthful compositions attracting the attention of the Grand-Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, he became, at the age of nineteen, professor of music to the hereditary prince, whom he accompanied to Berlin, where he took lessons of Bombach, and published his first opera, The Swiss Flight/' which had a great success. After spending some time at the court of the Kins of Hanover, he visited Vienna, and at this city some of his ballads first attracted attention. From 1843 tiU 1846 M. Eilcken resided in Paris, where he took lessons of Hal^vy, and com- posed his opera, " The Pretender/' as well as several romances, to six
of which Heinrich Heine furnished words. Among his oompoeitions may be cited, in addition to operas, five sonatas for piano and violin, and one hundred and twenty songs and ballads, the words of many of which have been translated into English. He obtained in 1848 the first prize at several German phil- harmonic societies, and in 1852 the three prizes for song music offered at the Antwerp musical fHe, and was until 1861 capell-meister to the Eing of Wftrtemburg. In the last-mentioned year he retired to Schwerin.
EUENEN, Abraham, D.D., LL.D., is a native of Haarlem, where he was born Sept. 9, 1828. He was educated in the local Gym- nasium. In 1846 he was entCTed as a student of theology in the Universitv of Leyden, and in 1821 took wita great distinction the doctor's degree in that faculty. The next year he qualified as Pro- fessor Extraordinary of the scienoe by a learned dissertation on the importance of an exact knowledge of Hebrew antiquity for the study. In 1853 the Academical Senate honoured him with the doctorate in literature, and in Oct. 1855, he became Ordinary Professor of Theology. Dr. Euenen had already made himself a great name as a critic of the Bibucal books, and especially of the Pentateuch, having published in the years 1851-54 a most important Latin work on Abu Said's Arabic version of Genesis, Exodus, and Leviticus from the Samaritan Pentateuch. Among the most noteworthy of his numerous later works are Ms three volumes, which appeared in the years 1861-65 under the title "His- torico-Critical Investigation into the Origin and Collection of the Old Testament Books." A French translation of the first volume, by A. Pierson, appeared at Paris in 1866, and a second was published in 1879, with a preface by M. Benan. A bitter and protracted