"Axel," pubUshed in 1840; "The Varieties of Man/' and " The Eth- nology of Europe," in 1862; "The EngUsh Language," in 1855 ; " De- scriptive Ethnology," in 1869 ; " Na- tionalities of Europe," in 1863; a work on "Comparative Philology ;" several papers on " Logic ;" a new edition of " Johnson's Dictionary," of which the thirty-sixth and last number was published Jan. 1, 1870 ; "Outlines of General or Develop- mental Philology," 1878 j and " Rus- sian and Turk from a Geographical, Ethnological, and Historical Point of View,^' 1878.
LAVELEYE, Emilb Louis Victor db, a Belgian writer, chiefly on topics connected with political economy, is a cousin of the well- known civil engineer, Auguste Fran<;ois Lamoral de Laveleye, who died in 1865 . born at Bruges, Apnl 5, 1822, he studied first in the Athe- nseum of that city, next in the Col- lege Stanislas, at Paris, and finally went through the course of law at Ghent. In 1848 he devoted himself exclusively to politics, and the study of economical questions, and in 1864 was appointed to tiie chair of Poli- tical Economy, in the University of Li^e. M. lAveleye is a warm par- tisan of the Libemls, whose policy he has supported in numberless articles, published in Belgian and French journals. He is a corre- sponding member of the Boyal Aca- demy of Belgium, and in 1869 he was elected a corresponding member of the French Academy of Moral and Political Sciences. In Aug. 1882 the University of Wfirzburg, uxK>n the occasion oi the celebration of its tercentenary, conferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor in Political Economy. M. Laveleye is a constant contributor to the Bevue des Dews Mondes, and has published a great number of separate works, of which we can only find room to mention: "M^moire sur la Langue et la Litt^rature I^^>- venijalee," 1844 ; " Histoire des Eois Francs/' 1847 j *' L'Enseignen ent
ObMgatoire," 1859; "La Question d'Or," I860; a translation of the "Nibelungen," 1861, second edition, 1866 ; " Questions Contemporaines," 1863; "Etudes et Essais," 1869; " Pnissia andAustria since the Battle of Sadowa," 1870; " L'Instruction du Pouple," 1872; "Essai sur les Formes du Gk>uvemement dans les Soci^t^s Modemes," 1872 ; " Le Parti Clerical en Belgique," 1873; "Des Causes ActueUes de la Guerre en Europe et de TArbitrage Interna- tional," 1873; "De la Propri6t6 et de ses Formes Primitives," 1874; " Protestantism and Catholicism in their bearing upon the Liberty and Prosperity of Nations," 1876; "L'Afrique Centrale et la Confer- ence G^ographique," 1877; and " dements d'Economie pubUque," a text-book of political economy, 1882. LAWES, Sib John Bbnnbt, Bart., F.E.S., LL.D., son of the late Mr. John Bennet Lawes, of Botham- sted, Hertfordshire, by Marianne, daughter of Mr. John Sherman, of Drayton, Oxfordshire, and widow of the Rev. D. G. Knox, was born at Bothamsted, Dec. 28, 1814. He suc- ceeded to his estate of Bothamsted in 1822. He was educated at Eton and at Brasenose College, Oxford. On leaving the University he spent some time in London, for the pur- pose of studying in a practical manner the science of chemistry. In Oct. 1834 he commenced regular experiments in agricultural chemis- try on taking possession of his pro- perty and home at Bothamsted, and from that date up to the present time he has unceasingly been ap- plying his scientific knowledge to the solution of questions affecting practical agriculture. In the com- mencement of his experiments, among other subjects, the effect of bones as a manure on land occupied his attention for some time. Mr. Lawes afterwards established large works in the neighbourhood of Lon- don for the manufacture of super- phosphate of lime, by which name the manure is known which has X X 2