LEO I'HE THIETEENTH.
toire des Massacres de Syrie en 1860," 1861; "Recherches Arch^o- logiques k tlevunE," 1862; "Essai sur rOrganisation Politique et Economique de la Monnaie dans r Antiquity/' 1863; "Mono^phie de la Voie Sacr^e Elensieime," 1864; "La Gr^oe et les ties loni- ennes/' 1865 ; " Introduction k un M^moire sur la Propagation de TAlphabet Ph^nicien dans Tancien Monde," 1866 ; " Les Tableaux du Mus^ de Naples," 1867; "Les Chefs-d'oeuvre de I'Art Antique," 8 vols., 1867-69; "Manuel d^His- toire Aiicienne de TOrient," 2 vols., 1868, a work which was "crowned " in 1869 by the French Academy; "Histoire du Peuple Juif," 1868;
- ' Histoire des Peuples Orientaux et
de rinde," 1869; "Essai de Com- inentaire des Fragments Cosmo- ^oniques de Berose, 1871 ; " Lettres Assyriologiques et 6pigraphiques sur TEUstoire et les Antiquit^s de r Asie ant^^ure," 2 vols., 1871-72 ; " Etudes Accadiennes," 1873 ; " Le Deluge et r^pop^e Babylonienne," 1873; "Choix de Textes Cun6i- formes," 1874-75; "Les Sciences occultes en Asie," 2 vols., 1874-75 ; "La Langue Primitive de la Chald^e," a reply to the critics of the "Etudes Accadiennes," 1875; " Sur le nom de Tammoux," 1876 ;
- Les Syllabaires Cun^iformes ; "
"Etude sur quelques parties des Syllabaires Cun^iformes," 1877; and "Les Origines de I'Histoire d'apr^s la Bible," Vol. II., Paris,
LEO THE THIRTEENTH, His Holiness Pope, the 258th Roman Pontiff, and 257th successor of St. Peter, is the son of Count Ludovico Pecci, by his wife Anna Prosperi. He was born at Carpineto, in the diocese of Anagni, in the State of the Church, March 2, 1810, and was baptized by the names of Vinoenzo and Gioacchino. His mother always called him by his first name, whidi was also used by himself up to the termination of his studies, when he began to use the second
name, Gtioacchino. In 1818 his father sent him, along with his elder brother Giuseppe, to the Jesuit College of Viterbo. There he was taught grammar and humanities under Father Leonardo Giribaldi, a man of gre&t learning, until the year 1824, when, on his mother's death, he was sent to Rome to the care of an imcle, and took up his residence in an apartment in the palace of the Marohese Muti. In Nov., 1824, he entered the schools of the Collegpio Romano, then restored to the Jesuits, and had for his teachers Fathers Ferdi- nando Minini and Giuseppe Bon- vicini, both distinguished for elo- quence and virtue of no common order. Three years later he began to study mathematics. He had for instructors Father Giovanbattista Piimciani, nephew of Leo XII., and Father Andreia Carafa, a mathema- tician of renown. Toung Pecci signalised himself by his assiduity and talent, and in 1828 got the first premium in Physico-Ohemistry, and the first accessU in mathematics. Then he passed to the course of philosophy, and in the four years of that curriculum he attended the lectures of Fathers Giovanni Per- rone, Francesco Manera, Michele Zecchinelli, Cornelius Van Ever- broeck, and Francesco Xaverio Patrizi, brother of the late Cardinal Patrizi. While studying philosophy Pecci was entrusted, despite his youth, to give repetitions in philo- sophy to we pupUs of ihe German College. In his third year of philo- sophy he sustained a public dis- putation, and obtained the first premium (1830). The following vear, being then but 21 years old, he obtained the Utwrea in philosophy. Even in Viterbo young Pecci was noticed for his ability and for his perfect propriety of conduct. In Rome he seemed entirely devoted to study, and took no part in enter- tainments, conversazioni, amuse- ments, or plays. At the age of 12 or 13 he wrote Latin^ prose or verse.