and after a brief interval of hesita- tion the Marshal came to the con- clusion that M. Gambetta's famous alternative — ou se soumettre ou se d&mettre — ^must be acted upon. Ac- cordingly he yielded to the Eepub- lican majority and a new ministry was formed under the presidency of M. Dufaure, with M. L^on Say, as Minister of Finance, and M. Wad- dington at the Foreign Office. Thus the i)eriod of uneasiness — the pro- longed crisis — that began on May 16, was peacefully brought to a close on Dec. 14, 1877. The Sena- torial elections at the beginning of 1879 gave the Eepublican party an effective working majority in the Upper Chamber. M. Dufaure's Ca- binet was at once pressed to remove the most conspicuous Anti-Repub- licans amonff the generals and offi- cials. Maruial MacMahon refused to be a party to these measures, and, seeing that resistance was idle, re- signed on Jan. 80, and was suc- ceeded by M. Gr^vy. After his election as President of the Bepub- lic. Marshal MacMahon was deco- rated with the insignia of various foreign Orders.
MACMILLAN, The Ebv. Hugh, D.D.,LL.D.,F.R.S.E.,bomatAber- feldy, Perthshire, Sept. 17, 1833, was educated at Breadalbane Aca- demy and Edinburgh University. He was appointed Free Church Minister of Eirkmichael, Perth- shire, in 1859, translated in 1864 to Free St. Peter's Church, Glasgow j and in 1878 to the Free West Church, Greenock — his present charge. He received the d^p^ee of LL.D. from the University -of St. Andrews, in Feb., 1871 ; was elected two months afterwards Fellow of the Koyal Society of Edinburgh; and in April, 1879, the degree of D.D. was conferred upon him by the University of Edinburgh. Dr. Macmillan is the author of " Bible Teachings in Nature," 1866, now in its 2l8t edition, translated into Danish, Swedish, German, and other continental languages; First
Forms of Vegetation," in its third thousand; ** Holidays on High Lands," which has run through two large editions; "The True Vine," also in its fourth edition ; " The Ministry of Nature," in its fifth edi- tion ; " The Garden and the City," in its second edition; "Sunglmts in the Wilderness;" "The Sab- bath of the Fields," translated into Danish and Norwegian ; * ' Our Lord's Three Raisings from the Dead;" "Two Worlds are Ours;" aftd "The Marriage in Cana of Galilee ; " be- sides numerous contributions to quarterly reviews and religious and scientific periodicals.
McMURDO, Major-Gen. Wil- liam, C.B., of Scotch extraction, bom about 1819, entered the army as ensign in the 78th Highlanders in 1837, and proceeding to India was employed on the staff. From the commencement of the brilliant operations in Scinde, conducted by the late Sir Charles Napier, the great zeal and personal intrepidity manifested by Lieut. McMurdo — most conspicuously at the battle of Meeanee, Feb. 17, 1843 — attracted the attention of that illustrious commander, whose daughter he afterwards married. Sir Charles appointed him his Assistant Quar- termaster-General, and on many occasions expressed in very em- phatic terms the high opinion he entertained of his conduct and ser- vices. He became Major in 1848, Lieut.-Col. in 1853, and Col. in 1854. At an early period of the campaign in the Crimea, when the inadequate means of land conveyance for the service of the troops had become apparent, he was intrusted with the formation and command of the Land Transport Corps — since desiccated the Military Train — whicn new branch of our military establish- ment he rendered efficient, and for this service was made C.B. Not long after the Volunteer movement of 1859 assumed a permanent cha- racter. Col. McMurdo was selected as the fittest officer for the import-