eigrnation of the late Professor Clough in 1852. He retired from liis post in Oct., 1865, having been appointed Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature in the Univer- sity of Edinburgh . He contributed numerous articles to the Quarterly, National, British Quarterly, and North British Reviews, to the *' EiTcy- clopfiedia Britannica and the " Eng- lish Cyclopasdia," and in 1859 became editor of Macmillait's Magcusine, which he conducted for a good many years, and to which he has largely contributed. His papers on Carlyle's " Latter-Day Pamphlets," "Dickens and Thackeray," "Rabe- lais," " Literature and the Labour Question," " Pre-Raphaelism in Art and Literature," " Theories of Poe- try," " Shakspere and Goethe," " Hugh Miller," and " De Quincey and Prose-writing," are the best known. His " Essays, Biog^phical and Critical: chiefly on English Poets," appeared in 1856, and have been reprinted, with additions, in 3 vols., 1874, one being entitled specially, " Chatterton : a Story of the year 1870;" his "Life of John Milton, narrated in connection with the Political, Ecclesiastical, and Literary History of his Time," vol. i. was published in 1858, vol. ii. in 1871, vol. iii. in 1873, and vols. iv. and V. in 1878, there being yet one volume wanted to complete the work ; " British Novelists and their Styles: a Critical Sketch of the History of British Prose Fiction," in 1859 J "Recent British Philo- sophy; a Review with Criticism, including some Remarks on Mr. Mill's Answer to Sir W. Hamilton," being an exphmation of some lec- tures delivered at the Royal Insti- tution of Great Britain, in 1865. Among his most recent publications are an edition of Milton's Poetical Works, called "The Cambridge Edition," in three volumes, with introductions, notes, and an essay on Milton's English, and a smaller edition of the same, called "The Golden Treasury Edition," in two
volumes, with introductions, notes, and a memoir. Both appeared in 1874. In 1873 he published a bio- graphy of the poet Drummond, en- titled, " Drummond of Hawthom- den: the Story of his Life and Writings ; " and in 1874 " The Three Devils: Luther's, Milton's, and Goethe's."
MASTERS, Maxwell Ttlden, M.D., F.R.S., born in 1833,at Canter- bury, was educated at King's Col- lege, London, after which he prac- tised medicine for some years. He held the lectureship on botany at St. George's Hospital from 1855 to 1868, and became principal editor of the Gardener's Chronicle in 1866. Dr. Masters has been Botanical Exa- miner in the University of London ; is a Fellow of the Royal, Linnean, and Royal Horticultural Societies ; an Associate of King's College ; an honorary or corresponding member of the principal Horticultural So- cieties of Belgium, France, Ger- many, Russia, Italy, and America, and of the Royal Society of Sciences of Li^ge, the Society of Natural Sciences of Cherbourg, and cor- respondent of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. His works consist of a treatise on "Vegetable Teratology," of "Bo- tany for Beginners" (of which Dutch and Russian tninslations have been made), and of numerous monographs and papers on subjects relating to botany, vegeteble phy- siology, and horticulture. He is a frequent contributor to scientific periodicals, and has taken part in Oliver's " Flora of Tropical Africa," Hooker's " Flora of British India," VonMartius's " Flora Brasiliensis," De Candolle's "Prodromus," and other works, besides preparing the second and third editions of Hen- frey's " Elementary Course of Botany."
MATHERS, Helen Buckino- HAM (Mrs. Henry Reeves), novelist, was born in 1852, at Crewkerne, Somerset, and educated at Chantry, near Frome. Her first novel was