contributed numerous papers to the medical journals, the Medico-Chi- rurgical Transactions, and the 8t. Thomas* s Hospital Reports; and is the inventor of several ingenious surgical instruments.
MASSt, F^Lix Mabie Victob, composer, born at Lorient, March 7, 1822, studied at the Conservatoire of Paris, and carried off the princi- pal prize for musical composition in 18i4. Upon his return from Rome he composed various romances and melodies, and in 1852 a comic opera in one act, entitled " La Chan- teuse Voil^e," which was successful. Amongst his later compositions, which have nearly always met with a favourable reception, may be men- tioned, " Les Noces de Jeannette/' 1853 ; " Galath^e," 1854, accounted one of his best works ; *' Miss Fau- vette," 1856 j " Les Saisons," 1856 ; " La Eeine Topaze," 1856 ; " La F^e Carabosse," 1869 ; *' Le Dernier Couplet," 1861; and "Le FUs du Brigadier," 1867. M. Mafis^, who is chief of the choir of the opera, is decorated with the Cross of the Legion of Honour, and in 1863 received a pension. In 1866 he was appointed to succeed M. Lebome as Professor of Composition at the Conservatoire. He was elected a Member of the Academie des Beaux Arts in the place of Auber, in 1871 ; and an Associate of the Royal Aca- demy of Belgium, in succession to Felicien David, Jan. 11, 1877.
MASSEY, Gerald, poet, born at Tring, in Herefordshire, May 29, 1828, of very poor parents, in early youth was employed in a silk- mill, and afterwards became a straw - plaiter. He received a scanty education at the British and National Schools. The Bible,
- Robinson Crusoe," the "Pilgrim's
Progress," and " Greek and Roman History," constituted his chief reading whilst at home. At the age of fifteen he repaired to Lon- don, became an errand-boy, and spent some years in trade before he began to gain his living by writing.
A volume entitled " Poems and Chan" sons," published at Tring about 1846, was his first work, and in 1848 he edited a paper called the Spirit of Freedom, and in 1848 published " Voices of Freedom and Lyrics of Love." The same year he became one of the secretaries to the Chris- tian Socialists, who, headed by the Rev. Mr. Maurice, were trying to promote co-operation amongst the working classes. He wrote "The Ballad of Babe Crystabel, and other Poems," published in 1856 ; "Craig- crook Castle, and other Poems," in 1856 J and " Havelock's March, and other Poems," in 1861. Mr. Mas- sey, who afterwards published a prose work, entitled " Shakspere's Sonnets and his IVivate Friends," received a pension on the civil list in 1863. His latest work is "A Tale of Eternity, and other Poems," 1869. He contributes to various periodicals, and lectures on literaiy and other subjects. In 1873 he proceeded on a lecturing tour to the United States, where he gained an unenviable notoriety by the de- livery of a blasphemous lecture en- titled, " Why does not God kill the Devil?"
MASSON, David, Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature in the University of Edinburgh, born Dec. 2, 1822, in Aberdeen, and edu- cated at Marischal College in that city, and at the University of Edin- burgh, commenced his literary career at the age of nineteen, as editor of a Scotch provincial news- paper, and repairing, in 1844, to London, where he remained about a year, contributed to Fraser's Ma- gazine and other periodicals. He established himself in Edinburgh for two or three years, as a writer for periodical publications, besides having special engagements with the Messrs. Chambers, returning to London in 1847, where he resided for eighteen years, and was ap- pointed to the chair of En^ish Language and Literature at Uni- versity College, London^ on the re-