had been for some years, appointed him secretary to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which post he re- tained till the peace of YiUafranca. Being elected a member and presi- dent of the Assembly of the Ko- magna, he superintended, with General Fanti, the military organi- sation of the province of Emilia, and gave a great impulse to the annexation movement. When the annexation was accomplished he was returned by the electors of his native city as deputy to the Italian Parliament. He was appointed Minister of the Interior in Cavour's last cabinet in Oct., 1860, and re- tained his i)ortfolio in the* adminis- tration of Bicasoli ; but on his scheme for the internal organisation of the new kingdom on 5ie basis of pro- vincial liberties being rejected by the Chambers, he resigned his office, and was elected Vice-President of the Parliament for the session of 1861. After the fall of the Eattazzi ministry, however, he again ac^ cepted office in March, 1863, as President of the Council, with the portfolio of Finance. On quitting the cabinet, he was nominated, in July, 1868, ambassador of the court of St. James's. Subsequently he was for a short time Minister of Agriculture under Signer Mena- brea, and more recently he was ambassador at Vienna, but was re- called, at his own request, in Nov., 1870, being replaced by General Manabrea. On Jtdy 10, 1873, a new Italian ministry, under the presi- dency of Signer Minghetti, was sworn in at Bome. He was at first Minister of Finance and afterwards of Foreign Affairs. His ministry resigned March 19, 1876, when it was replaced by a Minisby of the Left under Signer Depretis. Signer Minghetti's minor writings have been collected and published in one volume in Florence, with the title of "Opusculi Letterari ed Econo- mici di Marco Minghetti," 1872. Since his retirement he has written
- ' Le Donne Italiane nelle Belle arti
al secolo XV. e XVI.," published in 1877, and "La Chiesa e lo Stato/ Milan, 1878.
MIOLAN-CAEVALHO, Madame Mabib Cabolinb, vocalist, born at Marseilles, Dec. 31, 1827, was edu- cated at a school in the neighbour- hood, and shortly afterwards en- tered the Conservatoire of Paris, where she remained for two years, under Duprez. Having carried off the first prize at the Conservatoire, she made a tour through the prin- cipal cities of France, in which she sang in concerts in company with her master, and on her return to Paris made her d^but at the Grand Op^ra with brilliant success, in "Lucia di Lammermoor," and the second act of " La Juive." She was immediately afterwards engaged at the Op^ra Comique, where she ap- peared in Auber's " Ambassadrice/' and, later, in " Le Cald" and "Gir- alda," the latter having been com- posed expressly for her by Adolphe Adam. She sang in " Act^n," "Les Myst^res d'Udolpho," "La Cour de C^lim^ne," " Les Noces de Jeanette," and " Le Nabab," all written for her. In 1853 Mdlle. Miolan was married to M. L6on Carvaille, called CarvaJho, director of the Th^Atre Lyrique, of which establishment she at once became the prima donna, singing in " Fan- chonette," "Margot," "La Eeine Topaze," "La Marguerite," "Les Noces de Figaro," and olier new operas. On the death of Madame Bosio, in 1859, Mr. Gye was recom- mended by M. Meyerbeer to supply her place with Madame Miolan- Carvalho^ who appeared, July 26, in the character of Dinorah, and at once became a favourite. Duriag her second season in London, she was completely established as one of the first operatic singers of the day. She was the original Mar- guerite in Gounod's opera of "Faust," and appeared at the Boyal Italian Opera of London in that character with great success in 1863.