of the Royal Botanic Garden, and late Queen's Botanist for Scotland, related to Dr. James Hutton, author of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth, was born Sept. 15, 1808. He took the degree of M.A. in the University of Edinburgh, and that of M.D. in 1831, and was Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow from 1841 to 1845. He is the author of the "Manual of Botany," "Phyto-Theology, or Botany and Religion," "The Classbook of Botany," "Outlines of Botany," "The Plants of Scripture," "The Botanist's Companion," "Elements of Botany for Schools," "Illustrations of Botany, by means of large coloured Drawings, with Handbook," "First Book of Botany, suited for Beginners," 1872; "Introduction to the Study of Palæontological Botany," 1872; and "Second Book of Botany," 1873. He contributed the article on Botany to the 8th and 9th editions of the Encyclopædia Britannica, and papers to the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and of the Botanical Society. Dr. Balfour is a member of many learned societies on the Continent, is a Vice-President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and was for thirty years (up to 1877) Dean of the Medical Faculty of the University of Edinburgh in that city, and is now an assessor of that University.
BALL, The Right Hon. John Thomas, M.P., LL.D., eldest son of Major Benjamin Marcus Ball, was born at Dublin in 1815, and educated at Trinity College, Dublin, graduating B.A. in 1836, and LL.D. in 1844. He was called to the Irish bar in 1840, and became successively a Queen's Counsel, Queen's Advocate and Judge of the Provincial Consistorial Court at Armagh. At the general election of 1868 he was returned to the House of Commons in the Conservative interest by the University of Dublin, and for a few weeks in Nov. and Dec. of that year he was successively Solicitor-General and Attorney-General for Ireland under Mr. Disraeli's administration. In 1870 the University of Oxford conferred on him the honorary degree of D.C.L. Dr. Ball proved himself to be a ready and energetic debater by his numerous speeches on the Church Bill, the Land Bill, and other measures affecting Ireland. When the Conservatives came into power in Feb. 1874, Dr. Ball again became Attorney-General for Ireland, and at the close of that year he was appointed Lord Chancellor of Ireland. He took the oaths of office Jan. 1,1875, and resigned in May, 1880. He has been Vice-Chancellor of the University of Dublin, since Jan. 1880. He married, in 1852, Catherine, daughter of the Rev. Charles R. Elrington, Regius Professor of Divinity in the University of Dublin.
BALL, Robert Stawell, LL.D., F.R.S., was born at Dublin, July 1, 1840, and educated at Chester by Dr. Brindley. He was appointed University Student at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1861; Lord Rosse's Astronomer at Parsonstown in 1865; Professor of Applied Mathematics and Mechanism at the Royal College of Science for Ireland in 1867; Fellow of the Royal Society in 1873; Andrews Professor of Astronomy in the University of Dublin, and Royal Astronomer of Ireland in 1874. He obtained the Cunningham Gold Medal of the Royal Irish Academy. Mr. Ball is author of the following works among others:—"Experimental Mechanics," 1871; "Theory of Screws," Dublin, 1876; "Elements of Astronomy," 1880; besides many papers on mathematics, astronomy, and physical science in various publications. He has frequently lectured on Astronomy in the leading institutions in the United Kingdom, and we may especially refer to his "Christmas Lectures on Astronomy" at the Royal Institution in 1881–2.
BALLANTINE, William, Serjeant-at-Law, is son of the late Mr.