ture and History, a.d. 200-1876/' published in 1876 j" "Tables of Ancient Literature and History/' 1877; "English Composition/' a literature primer, 1879; "Byron" (English Men of Letters series), 1880; "The Death of Themis- tocles, and other Poems/' 1881 ; "Robert Bums, a Sketch of his Career and Genius/' 1882; and " American Literature, an Histori- Review," 1882. He has also written numerous essays for the Westmin" iter. North British, and other re- views; articles in the "Encyclo- psedia Britannica;" and several pamphlets on educational and other questions.
NICHOLAS (Oband Duke) NicoLAiEViTCH, tlurd son of the Czar Nicholas I., and brother of the Czar Alexander II., was born July 27 (Aug. 8), 1831. Being destined for a military career he received a suitable education, and entered into active service at the age of sixteen. The Grand Duke spent a few days in Sebastopol, when that fortress was besieged in 1855; he was at- tached for a period of two years to the general stafF of the army of the Caucasus, and in that capacity he was present at several skirmishes with the Tcherkesses. Nominated a General and Inspector-General of Engineers, he commanded-in-chief all the army, having General Tod- leben as his assistant. He was also appointed Commander of the Royal Body Guard, and President of the chief commission for the organisa- tion and instruction of the troops. In the recent war against Turkey he received the command-in-chief of the army of the Danube, which, after a council of war held some days previously at KichenefP, in- vaded Roumania April 24, 1877. The Grand Duke himself arrived at Bucharest on the 25th of May, and was received at the railway station, with great ceremony, by the reign- ing Prince Charles I., and the Metropolitan. In April, 1878, he resigned the command-in-chief of
the Russian Army before Constan- tinople, and was succeeded by General Todleben. He married, Feb. 6, 1856, the Princess Alexandra, daughter of Prince Peter of Olden- burg (she was born June 2, 1838), and has two sons.
NICHOLSON, Henbt Ai.lbtnb, M.D., P.G.S., was born at Penrith, Cumberland, Sept. 11, 1844, and educated at the Universities of G5ttingen and Edinburgh. He was Baxter Scholar in Natmal Science (1866), Ettles Scholar in Medicine, and Gold Medallist of the Univer- sity of Edinburgh (1867). He was appointed Lecturer on Natural His- tory in the Medical School of Edin- burgh in 1869; Prof essor of Natural History and Botany in the Univer- sity of Toronto in 1871 ; Professor of Biology and Physiology in the University of Durham (College of Physical Science, Newcastle) in 1874 ; Professor of Natural History in the University of St. Andrews in 1875; and Swiney Lecturer on Geology to the British Museum in 1877. In 1882 he was appointed Regius Professor of Natural His- tory in the University of Aberdeen, which appointment he now holds. He is the autiior of original scien- tific works, princii)ally geological and palceontological, comprising " Essay on the Geology of Cumber- land and Westmoreland/' 1866; " Monograph of the British Grap- tolitidsB/' 1872; "Reports on the Palseontology of the Province of Ontario," 1874-75 ; " Report on the Fossil Corals of the State of Ohio," 1875 ; " The Stmcture and Affinities of the Tabulate Corals of the Palaeozoic Period/' 1879; "The Structure and Affinities of the Genus Monticulifura," 1881 ; and numerous memoirs in various scien- tific publications. He is also the author of various educational works, such as "Manual of Zoology;" " Manual of Palwontology ;" " In- troduction to the Study of Biology;" and " Ancient Life-B&story of the Earth."