second-clasB honours, and M.A. in 1840. In May, 1840, he was ap- pointed one of the assistants in the department of Antiquities at the British Mtisetun, which post he held until 1852, when, being anxious to rescue from oblivion some of the ancient sculptures on the coasts of Asia Minor and in the islands of the Mgean, he obtained the ap- pointment of Vice-Consul at Mity- lene. After having spent several years in exploring the Archipelago, he discovered at Budrum (tiie an- cient Halicamassus) the site of the Mausoleum erected by Artemisia, and carried on extensive excava- tions at Cnidus and at Branchidse, between Oct., 1856, and April, 1859. The results of his discoveries con- sist of a fine collection of sculptures from the Mausoleum and other places, deposited in the British Musetim, which is indebted to Mr. Newton for a most interesting col- lection of Greek inscriptions, vases, coins, and other antiquities, ac- quired in Asia Minor and the Archi- pelago, by purchase or in the course of excavation. In May, 1860, he was appointed British Consul at Eome ; in 1861 Keeper of the Ghreek and Roman Antiquities in the Bri- tish Museiun j and in 1880 Profes- sor of Archaeology at University College, London. Mr. Newton was elected an honorary fellow of Wor- cester College, Oxford, Nov. 28, 1874. He was made an honorary D.C.L. of Oxford in 1875 ; a Companion of the Bath in the same year -, and an honorary LL.D. of Cambridge in 1879. He is also a member of the Boman Accademia dei Lincei; a corresponding member of the French Institute j has received the honorary degree of Ph.D. from the University of Strasburg ; and holds the honorarv post of Antiquary to the Eoyal Acadeniy. His wife, a daughter of Mr. Joseph Severn, was a celebrated artist. She died Jan. 2, 1866. Mr. Newton has published "Notes on the Sculptures at Wilton House," printed for private circu-
lation, 1849 ; "A History of Disco- veries at Halicamassus, Cnidus, and BranchidcB," 2 vols., 1862, &c. ; "Travels and Discoveries in the Levant," 2 vols., 1865 j a descrip- tion of the CasteUani Collection, 1874; "A Guide to the Blacas Col- lection of Antiquities ; " " Synopsis of the Contents of the British Museum" in the Department of Greek and Boman Antiquities, and " Essays on Art and Archaeology," 1880. He has also translated from the German "Panofka's Manners and Customs of the Greeks," 1849 ; and edited "The Collection of Ancient Greek Inscriptions in the British Museum."
NEW WESTMINSTEE (Bishop op), fifee Sillitob.
NICHOL, John, LL.D., only son of J. P. Nichol, late Professor of Astronomy, was born at Mon- trose, Forfardiire, Sept. 8, 1833, and educated in the University of Glasgow (1848-55), and at Balliol College, Oxford (1865-59). He graduated B.A. at Oxford, with first class in classics and philosophy (and honours in mathematics) in 1869, but did not proceed to the degree of M.A. until 1874, after the abolition of the tests. The degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him by the University of St. Andrews, Feb. 25, 1873. In 1861 he was ap- pointed, by the Crown, Professor of English Literature in the Univer- sity of Glasgow, and still occupies that Chair. In addition to teaching his classes. Dr. Nichol has been much engaged as a private tutor at Oxford, and in delivering popular lectures, especially to ladies' classes, in various parts of Scotland and England. He has taken some part in i>olitical questions, as an advo- cate of the North in the American Civil War, of Secular Education, and of Broad Church theology. Professor Nichol is the author of the following works : " Fragments of Criticism," a volume of essays, 1860 ; "Hannibal," a classical drama, 1872 J " Tables of European Litera-