Littlemore ; and in 1842 he quitted Oxford, and established at Little- more an ascetic community on a mediBBval model, over which he presided for three years. He held St. Mary's from 1828 tiU 1843, where, by his preaching, he gained such influence over the younger members of the university, that he became, in conjunction with Dr. Pusey, the recognised leader of the High Church party. He took a leading part in the publication of the "Tracts for the Times," to which he contributed the final tract. No. 90, which was severely censured by the university authorities as practically annulling the broad lines of demarcation between the English and Soman Catholic Churches. In Oct., 1845, he seceded from the Established Church, was received into the Eoman communion, and was, after being ordained priest, appointed head of the Oratory of St. Philip Neri at Birmingham. In 1854 he was appointed Bector of the newly-founded Catholic Univer- sity in Dublin, but resigned that post in 1858, and established a school for the sons of Eoman Ca- tholic gentry at Edgbaston, near Birmingham. Dr. Newman was elected an honorary Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford, Dec. 28, 1877. It has been frequently as- serted that Dr. Newman did not believe in tiie doctrine of the Infal- libility of the Soman Pontiff when speaJring ex cathedrA to the Univer- sal Church on questions of faith or morals. In reply to a criticism to this effect made by a Mr. Capes, Dr. Newman wrote as follows (Sept. 13, 1872) : " He assumes that I did not hold or profess the doctrine of the Pope's Infallibility till the time of the Vatican Council, whereas I have committed myself to it in print again and again from 1845 to 1867. And on the other hand, as it so happens — ^though I held it, as I ever have done— -I have had no occasion to profess it, whether in print or otherwise, since that date. |
Any one who knows my writings will recollect that in so saying' I state a simple fact." Dr. Newman was created and proclaimed a Car- dinal Deacon by Pope Leo XHI. in 1879. His Eminence has written " Lectures on Bomanism and Popu- lar Protestantism," 1837; "Letter to J. Faussett on certain Points of Faith," 1838 ; " Parochial Sermons," 8 vols., 1838-44; "Lectures on Jus- tification," 1840; "Church of the Fathers," 1840; "Essay on the Miracles of the Middle Ages," 1843 ; "Annotated translation of St. Atha- nasius," 1842-44 ; "Sermons on the Subjects of the Day," 1844 ; " Ser- mons on Theory of Seligious Be- lief," 1844; " Development of Chris- tian Doctrine," 1846; "Disoouraes addressed to Mixed Congregations," 1850 ; " Life of ApoUonius Tyanseus," 1824; "Loss and Gain, or the StcNry of a Convert," 1848; "Lectures on the History of the Turks as to Christianity," 1854; "Arians of the Fourth Century," "Calliata, Sketch of the Third Century," " Discourses on the Nature of Uni- versities," and essays on the " Office and Work of Universities," in 1854-56; "Sermons preached on Various Occasions," 1857 ; " Lec- tures and Essays on University Subjects," 1859; and "Letter to Dr. Pusey on his recent Eirenicon," 1866. He pubUshed an autobiogra- phical record of his life, entitled "Apologia pro VitA SuA," in 1864; a "Collection of Poems," in 1868; an "Essay on Assent," in 1870; and "A Letter addressed to His Grace the Duke of Norfolk, on occasion of Mr. Gladstone's recent Expostulation," 1875.
NEWPORT AND MENEVIA, Bishop of. (See Hsdlst.)
NEWTON, Chables Thomas, C.B., D.C.L., son of the Eev. N. D. H. Newton, Vicar of Bredwardine, Herefordshire, born in 1816, was educated at Shrewsbury School and Christ Church, Oxford, of which he was a faculty student, and where he graduated B.A. in 1837, taJdng