tbe Sacred Apostolic Palaces and Administrator of the Property of the Holy See.
NISARD, Jban Mabib Napo- leon D^birA, journalist, born at ChAtillon-sur-Seine, March 20, 1806, was educated at Sainte Barbe, joined the stafT of the Journal des Ddhati in 1826, and afterwards became connected with the Nat ional . He was appointed to a post in the lEoole Normale, which he filled till 1844, and held other important posts, succeeded M. ViUemain in the chair of French eloquence, and was made director of the ^cole Normale Sup6rieure in 1857. This latter position he retained till 1867, when he was raised to the dignity of a Senator. He has written, amongst other works, " Les Poetos Latins de la Decadence," published in 1834 ; " Histoire et Description de la Ville de Nknes," in 1835; " Melanges/' in 1838 ; " Precis de THiatoire de la Litterature Fran- ^aise depuis ses Premiers Monu- ments jusqu'k nos Jours," in 1840 ; "Histoire de la Litterature Fran- 9aise, in 1844-63 j he contributed articles to the Revue de Paris, the Revue des Deux Mondes, the Revue Contemporaine, and the Revue Euro- pienne ; has translated some of the plays of Shakspeare, and written some novels. He was made a mem- ber of the Academic FranQaise in 1860 i Officer of the Legion of Honour in 1846, and Commander, June 16, 1856. He superintended the publication of a collection of Latin Classics, with a translation in French, commenced in 1839, and completed in 27 volumes.
N I S A E D, Marie Edouabd Chablbs, brother of M. Jean Marie MapoU'on Lsir(5 Nisard, born at Ch4tillon-su?-Seine, Jan. 10, 1808, was brought up to commercial pur- Huits, which he relinquished for a lit.r.iry oaroer. His ** tpltre aux AiiJiromaJ'tiques," appeared in 1829, and from 1831 tUl 1848 he was attached to the family of Louis Philippe, and assisted in the direc-
tion of several journals devoted to the support of the cause of the revolution of July, 1830. Amongst his numerous works are "Camera Lucida," published in 1846 ; " Le Triumvirat Litt^raire au XVIe Si^cle," in 1852 ; " Les Ennemis de Voltaire," and "Les M^moirea de Huet," in 1853; "Histoire des Livres Populaires depuis le XVe Sifecle jusqu'en, 1852," in 1854; " Les GJadiat^urs de la R^publique desLettres auxXVe,XVIe, etXVlIe Si^cles," in 1860 ; and " Curiosity de TEtymologie Frangaise," in 1863. He was elected a member of the Academic des Sciences in 1867.
NOAILLES, Paul, Duo db, a French historian, born Jan. 4, 1802, inherited the title of Peer of France from a great-uncle, who died in 1823. He did not take his seat at the Palace of the Luxem- bourg till 1827, and after the revo- lution of July he remained at his post and delivered many speeches, which have been published in a collected form. In 1848 he retired into private life, and has since de- voted himself to literary research. In March, 1871, he was offered by M. Thiers the post of French Am- bassador to the court of St. Peters- burg, but he declined the i^point- ment, on the ground of ill health. The Duke, who was elected a mem- ber of the French Academy in 1849, is the author of an essay on Saint- Cyr, under the title of " Histoire de la Maison Boyale de Saint Louis," published in 1843, and re- published with additions in 1856; and of "Histoire de Madame de Maintenon," 2 vols., 1848.
NOEDENSKIOLD (Babom), Adolf Ebik, a Swedish naturalist and explorer, was born at Helsing- fors, the capital of Finland, Nov. 18, 1832. Descended from a Swedish family long eminent in scientific piirsuits, he had his inherent tastes developed alike by his surroundings at his home at Frugard, which con- tains a magnificent mineral and natural history collection, and by