OSCAE II.— OSMAN PASHA.
the Charitable/' and "Hints for the Amelioration of the Moral Con- dition of a Village/' In 1856 j "Let- ters on the Education of Young Children/' in 1866 ; and many pam- phlets, urging on the public the improvement of the dwelUngs of the labouring classes.
OSCAE II., Kino op Swkden AND NoBWAY, was born Jan. 21, 1829, and before he ascended the throne held the rank of Lieutenant- General in the army. He married, in June, 1857, the Princess Sophia of Nassau, daughter of the late Duke Wilhelm of Nassau, who was born in July, 1836. From this union there are four sons — namely, Giistaf , Duke of Wermland, born in June, 1858, now heir-apparent to the throne J Oscar, Duke of Gotland, bom in Nov., 1859; Carl, Duke of WestergStland, born in Feb., 1861 ; and Eugene, Duke of Nerike, born in Aug., 1866. On the death of his brother, Charles XV., in 1872, he succeeded to the throne. The coro- nation of King Oscar and Queen Sophia took place July 18, 1878, at the Cathedral of Dronthcim in Nor- way . In 1878 the Frankfort A cademy of Sciences elected the King of Sweden a corresponding member in recognition of his poetical transla- tion of Goethe's "Faust" into Swedish. His Majesty is also the author of " A Memoir of Charles XII. (translated into English in 1879) ; and of " Poems and Leaflets from my Journal," 1880.
O'S H E A, John Auoustus, special correspondent, born in 1840, is a son of Mr. John O'Shea, of Nenagh, county Tipperary, author of many volumes of ballad poetry and tales. He was educated in the Catholic University, Dublin, and his first practical experience of war was at the siege of Ancona in 1860, when it was defended by the Papal troops. He went through the Austro-Prussian war as correspon- dent of a New York paper, and joined, in 1869, the staff of the London Standard, with which he
has been since connected. While acting as representative of the Standard during the Franco-Prus- sian war with the army of Marshal MacMahon advancing to the relief of Metz, he was sentenced to death at Rheims on suspicion of having been in communication with the enemy, and it was only on a personal appeal to the Emperor by a press colleague that his release was or- dered. After that he was one of the last to re-enter Paris before it was invested by the German forces, and while contributing continuous letters by balloon-post suffered all the privations of the siege in the beleaguered city. He has since been iJirough a couple of campaigns with the Carlists in Biscaya, was present at the capture of Cartha- gena, described the coronation of the King of Norway, detailed the exhibits at the Vienna Exposition, chronicled the episodes of the famine in Bengal, and in addition to home work has been actively en- gaged more recently in Turkey and the East. His latest trips were to Malta and Cyprus, and a week after returning from the latter island he started for Canada, to give a narrative of the reception of the Marquis of Lome and the Princess Louise. Mr. O'Shea is the author of one or two serial novels, and several comediettas, besides many shorter sketches and stories which have appeared in different magazines.
OSMAN PASHA (Ghazi), a Turkish general, born at Tokat, in Asia Minor, in 1832. He began his education in the preparatory school in Constantinople, under the super- vision of his brother, Hussein Ef- fendi, who, at the time, was pro- fessor of Arabic at the institution. From the preparatory school Osman passed in due course into the mili- tary school, and quitting the latter in 1853 with very high certificates, at once entered the army as a lieu- tenant; being appointed to the general staff in Shumla shortly 3 I