College. A four years' course of theology in preparation for ordina- tion has been the chief interrup- tion in his discharge of the duties -of this office. He was elected a .Fellow of the Eoyal Society in June, 1874, and has served for several years on the Councils of the Astronomical and Meteorolo- gical Societies. He is an honorary member of the Soci^t^ Scientifique de Bmxelles, and correspondmg member of the Soci^t^ G^graphique d'Anvers. In 1868 he undertook a magnetic siirvey of the West of France, in which he was assisted by the Rev. W. Sidgreaves, S.J., and in the following year the same work was done for the East of France. These two surveys formed the subject of two papers in the
- Philosophical Transactions." He
was chosen as Head of the Govern- ment Expedition sent to Cadiz to observe the total eclipse of the sun in Dec, 1870. In 1871 a magnetic survey of Belgium, similar to those undertaken in Fmnce, was made during the summer months. The results of this survey, and several other papers by the same author on Terrestrial Magnetism, were pub- lished in the *' Philosophical Trans- actions," and in the "Proceed- ings" of the Royal Society. In 1874 he received his appointment from the Admiralty as chief of the Expedition sent by the Government to Kerguelin Island in the South Indian Ocean to observe the Transit of Venus. The Rev. W. Sidgreaves again accompanied him on this expedition, and, in addition to the astronomical work, a long series of magnetic observations were made on the island, and at numerous stations during the journey. These magnetic observations appeared in the "Proceedings" of the Royal Society. " Notes " of his " Voyage to Kerguelin" appeared in the Month, 1875-76. The astronomical results were published in the " Ac- count of Observations of the Tran- sit of Venus, 1874, December 8,
made under the authority of the British Government by Sir G. B. Airy," and a " Report of the Mete- orology of Kerguelin, by the Rev. S. J. Perry," was printed for the Meteorological Office in 1879. The British Government again sent out expeditions in 1882 to observe the second Transit of Venus in this century, and Fathers Perry and Sidgreaves joined H.M.S. Fawn at the Cape of Good Hope to take the required astronomical observations in the N.W. of Madagascar. The transit of the planet was observed under most favourable circum- stances by the two astronomers, and also by Captain Aldrich, R.N., who determined very accurately the longitude of the station at Nos Vey. Magnetic observations at Madagascar formed part of the programme of the expedition, and the. natural history of this interest- ing country was studied as far as leisure from astronomical work would permit.
PERSIA, Shah op. (See Nasser- ed-Deen.)
PETERBOROUGH, Bishop op. (See Magee, Db.)
PETO, Sib Samuel Morton, Bart., born at Woking, Surrey, Aug. 4, 1809, served an apprenticeship of seven years with his uncle, Mr. Henry Peto, an extensive builder, and at his death in 1830 succeeded to a moiety of the business, his partner being Mr. Thomas Grissell, another nephew of the deceased. The partnership was dissolved by mutual consent in 1845, Mr. Gris- sell continuing on his own account the erection of the Houses of Par- liament, the greatest of the many public buildings undertaken by the firm. Among these structures are Hungerford Market and the Reform and Oxford and Cambridge Club- houses. Sir Samuel M. Peto con- structed a large portion of the leading railway-works in England, and was engaged in the forma- tion of a large railway in Canada. Among his most important works 3 L