the College. He also became Lec- turer in Physiology to the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. On assuming -^e duties of teacher of physiology, he chose as the sub- | ject of his opening address, **The i Relation of Plants and Animals to i Inorganic Matter, and the Inter- action of the Vital and Physical ; Forces." In this year (1873) he ! published his work on *' Animal Locomotion: or Walking, Swim- ming, and Flying," the most popu- lar and best known of all his writ- ings. This volume was translated shortly after its appearance into French, German, and other lan- guages. In 1874 he was awarded the Godard prize of the French Academy of Sciences, and made a laureate of the Institute of France. In 1875 he was appointed Chandos Professor of Medicine and Anatomy and Dean of the Medical Faculty in the University of St. Andrews. He gave as his introductory lecture " Man in his Anatomical, Physical, and Physiological Aspects." In 1875-77 he delivered special courses of physiological lectures in Dundee. In 1877 he was elected by the Uni- versities of Glasgow and St. An- drews as their representative at the General Council of Medical Education. He is the author of the article ** Flight and Flying Machines," in ninth edition of the " Encyclopaedia Britannica.'*
PEYTON, John Lewis, LL.B., F.R.G.S., born Sept. 15, 1824, in Virginia. LL.B. (University of Vir- ginia), iai5. At the age of fifteen he was sent to the Virginia Military Academy. In 1848 he travelled through Canada, the Maritime Pro- vinces, and in the N.W. States and territories, and in 1851 was sent by the U.S. Government on special service to the Courts of England, France, and Austria. He returned to the United States in 1853, and, after spending a few years in Illi- nois, retired in 1856 to his Virginian estate, when he was appointed a Justice of the Peac», and Director
in the State College in Augusta oo., and also a Director in the Bank of the Valley in Virginia. He was Chief of the Staff of Gen. Layne in 1854, and in the same year declined the offered position of U.S. District Attorney of Utah. In 1861 he de- voted his property to the Southern cause, and engaged in raising and equipping a regiment for the pro- visional army. Unable, from a severe injury, to take command, he accepted the position of A^ent for NorUi Carolina in Europe. Aft^ an absence of fifteen years in Europe, Col. Peyton returned to the United States in 1876, and re- sumed his residence in Augusta county, Virginia, where he is now engaged in literary and scientific pursuits. He is a corresponding member of the Virginia Historical Society, of the Wisconsin Historical Society, and other learned institn- tions. He has written '• A Statis- tical View of the State of lUinois," 1854 ; " Railway Communication with the Pacific," 1854; "The American Crisis," 1866 ; ** The Ad- ventures of my Grandfather,** 1867 ; " Over the Alleghanies and acrods the Prairies," 1869; "Memoir of William Madison Peyton, of Roa- noke," 1870 ; a biographical sketch of Anne Montgomery Peyton, 1876; and a " History of Augusta County, Virginia."
PHILIPPOTEAUX, F6LIX Em- MANUBL Henri, a French historical painter, born at Paris, April, 3. 1815, entered at an early age the studio of M. L^n Cogniet, in con- junction with whom, at a later period, he painted several battle- pieces for the gallery at Versailles. His first exhibited 4)icture appeared at the Salon of 1833 ; many of the works which he afterwards exhibi- ted now adorn the walls of the principal modem museums in France, including those of the Lux- embourg, Versailles, Rouen, Stras- burg, and Marseilles, The princi- pal are: — "Le Rocher de Glace," an episode of the American War,