Harwood," 8vo, London, 1868 ; " The Church and the French Eevolution, a History of the Relations of Church and State, from 1789 to 1802, trans- lated by T. Stroyau," 8vo, London, 1869; "The Early Years of Chris- tianity, translated by A. Harwood," 8vo, London, 1869.
PRESTWICH, Joseph, M.A., F.R.S., the descendant of an old Lancashire family, was born at Pensbury, Clapham, near London, March 12, 1812. He was educated at various preparatory schools, and in Paris ; Dr. Valpy's, Reading ; and finally at University College, London. His tastes would have led him to choose a profession, but cir- cumstances obliged him to engage in active business in the City. Mr. Prestwich's first works were pai)ers on the C^amrie Ichthvolites, and Shells in the Till of Banffshire, and on the Geology of Coalbrook Dale, published in the Transactions of the Geological Society, 1835 j this was followed by a series of papers on Tertiary Geology, published in the Journal of the Geological Society, and by two papers on the Quater- nary beds of the valley of the Somme, published in the Philoso- phical Transactions, in which he was the first to show on sufficient geological evidence the validity of the fact, so often and so unsuccess- fully brought forward by many observers on the Continent and in this country, of the contempora- neity of man with the extinct mam- malia. He is also the author of a little work on the geology of the neighbourhood of London, entitled " The Ground beneath us," as well as of a more elaborate work, " The Water-bearing Strata of the Coun- try around London." In 1849 the Geological Society awarded him the Wollaston Medal for his researches on the coalfield of Coalbrook Dale, and those on the tertiary districts of London and Hampshire. In 1865 the Royal Society awarded him a Royal Medal for his contributions to geological science, and more
especially for his paper in the Philosophical Transactions " On the OccuiTcnce of Flint Implements associated with the remains of animals of extinct species in beds of a late geological i)eriod in France and in Enghmd ; '* and that " On the Theoretical Considerations on the Conditions under which the Drift deposits containing the re- mains of extinct Mammalia and Flint Implements were accumu- lated, and on their geological age." He served on the Royal Coal Com- mission of 1866, for which he drew up two of the separate reports j and on the Royal Commission on Water Supply of 1867. He was President of the Geological Society 1870-72 ; Vice-President of the Royal Society 1870-71. In 1872 he retired from business. In 1874 the Institution of Civil Engineers awarded him a Telford Medal and premium for his paper on the "Geological Condi- tions affecting the Construction of a Tunnel between England and France."" He waa appointed Pro- fessor of Geology at Oxford, June 29, 1874, in succession to the late Professor Phillips, and his inau- gural lecture was published under the title of " The Past and Future of Geology," 1875. In 1876, in investigating the conditions for a better water-supply, he pointed out that there was under Oxford an abundant source of mineral water, allied to, but stronger than those of Cheltenham and Leamington. PRETORIA, Bishop of. See
PRICE, The Rev. Bartholomew, M.A., F.R.S., son of the late Rev. William Price, rector of Coin St. Dennis, Gloucestershire, where he was born in 1818, was educated at Pembroke College, Oxford, and gra- duated B.A. in 1840, taking first- class honours in mathematics. He was elected Fellow of his college, and was afterwards appointed Tutor, and has several times been one of the Public Examiners in Mathe- matical and Physical Science. He