ing defeat. On the return of Sir Frederick Eoberts to England he was loaded with honours ; he was presented with the freedom of the city of London, received the thanks of Parliament, and was created a baronet. In Feb., 1881, he was appointed to succeed Sir George Colley in the command of the troops in Natal and the Transvaal, but peace was concluded with the Boers before his arrival in the colony. He was afterwards ap- pointed a member of the Coun<il of Madras, and to command the troops in tliat Presidency (1881). To the Nineteenth Century for Nov., 1882, he contributed an article on the " Present State of the Army," thus supplying the sequel to an interesting speech which he had delivered at the Mansion House about two years before.
ROBIN, Charles Philippb, a French physician and naturalist, bom at Jasseron (Ain), June 4, 1821, studied medicine at Paris, and was admitted "interne des hopitaux " in 1843. He gained, at the competition , of 18Jri, the prize given by the Ecole Pratique de Medicine ; was sent in 1845, with M. Lebert, by Orfila, to the coasts of Normandy and Jersey, in order to collect objects of natural history and comparative anatomy, for the museum which he had founded at the tcole, and received in 1847 the degree of Doctor. A close examiner of objects, he has greatly promoted the use of the microscope in ana- tomy and pathology ; and, in addi- tion to his microscopical labours, has studied the natural sciences. He was elected a member of the Academy of Medicine in 1858, and appointed Professor of Histology in that institution, April 19, 1862. In 1871 he founded, in conjunction with M. Littr^, a Sociological Society. He was elected a Senator by the department of the Ain in 1876 ; his term of office will expire in 1885. M. Eobin is connected with numerous French and foreign
scientific societies, and is decorated with the Legion of Honour. In addition to a large number of works relating to microscopical investigar tion, he has published "Tableux d' Anatomic, contenant I'Expoe^ de toutes les Parties ^ Etudier dans rOrganisme de rHomme, et dans celTii des Animaux," 1851 ; '•Traite de Chimie Anatomique et Physiolo- gique," 1852 ; *' Histoire Naturelle de Veg^taux Parasites qui croissent sur THomme et les Animanx Vi- vants." 3 vols., 1853 (in collabora- tion with M. VerdeU) ; " Notice sur rCEuvre et la Vie d'Auguete Comte," 1864; **Le<?ons sur ks Substamces Amorphes et les Blaa- t^mes," 1866; '*Le<jon3 sur lea Substances Organis^es etleur Alte- rations," 1866; "Lemons wax les Humeurs Normales et Morbides du Corps del'Honmie," 1867; "Le<^ns sur les Vaisseaux Capillaires et rinflammation," 1867 ; "Anatomie Microscopique," 1868 ; and " L'ln- struction et l^Education,*' 1877 ; besides numerous contributions to the M&moires de VAcad&mie des Sciences, and other scientific collec- tions. In collaboration with M. Littre he has entirely re-cast and re-written Nysten's '* Dictiannaire de M^decine," the 13th edition of which was published in 1872.
ROBINSON, The Right Hon. Sis Hercules Georob Robebt, G.C.M.G., second son of Captain Hercules Robinson, born in 1824, and educated at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, held, for some years, a commission in the 87tb Foot, but retired from the service in 1846, and was employed in vwi- ous capacities in the Civil Sexrice in Ireland until 1852. He was ap- pointed President of Montseirat in 1854, Lieutenant-Governor of St Christopher's in 1855, succeeded Sir John Bowring as Governor of Hong Kong fn. 1859, when he re- ceived the honour of knighthood, was promoted to the govenKmihip of Ceylon in Jan., 1865, and to tlM governorship of New South Wales