ROBERT I.— ROBERTS.
written in conjunction with an elder brother. At this time he became the London correspondent of the Cornish and Devon Post (Launceston) , and, in 1880, contributed a series of articles entitled " Short Sermons from Liberal Texts," and another, called " Letters to a Patriot," to the Liberal World. His next literary effort was a comedy, ** Vote by BaUot," published in 1880. He has aJso given several political lectures.
ROBERT I. (Robbbt-Charlbs- Louis Makie de Bourbon), ex-Duke of Parma, Infant of Spain, born July 9, 1848, succeeded his father, Duke Ferdinand Charles III. March 27, 1854, as Robert I., under the regency of his mother, the dowager-Duchess liOuise-Marie-Ther^se de Bourbon, daughter of the Duke de Berry. Her rule came to an end in 1859, in consequence of the revolution, and, with her son, she sought refuge in the Helvetic States. The ex- Duke Robert married, at Rome, April 5, 1869, the Duchess Maria Pia, daughter of the late Ferdinand II., King of Naples.
ROBERTS, The Right Rev. Fbancis Albxandeb Randal Cramsb, D.D., Bishop of Nassau, was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A. 1862; M.A. 1868). He was curate of Frant, near Ton- bridge- Wells, 1864-68, and of Haw- ley, Hampshire, 1868-70 ; rector of Llandinabo, 1870-72; again curate of Hawley, 1872-73 ; and vicar of BHndley-heath, Surrey, 1873-78. Having been nominated as suc- cessor to Bishop Venables, in the see of Nassau, he was consecrated in St. Paul's Cathedral, June 24, 1878.
ROBERTS, General Sir Frede- rick Sleigh, Bart., G.C.B., V.C, son of the late Sir Abraham Roberts, G.C.B., was born in 1832, and educated at Eton, Sandhurst, and Addiscombe. He received his first commission as second lieuten- ant in the Bengal Artillery, and, after passing tlurough the various other grades, was promoted to
lieutenant-genenU in 1879. He served with distinction throughout the Indian Mutiny campaign, and received the Victoria Cross for per- sonal bravery in the field in 1858. Throughout the Abyssinian cam- paign of 1868 he held the office of As^stant - Quartermaster - General ; he superintended the re-embarka- tion of the whole army, and was selected by Sir Robert Napier as the bear^ of his final despatches. He also acted as Assistant-Quarter- master-Gcneral with the Cachar column in the Looshai Expedition- ary Force (1871-72). At the com- mencement of the Afghan campaign he was appointed Commander of the Kuram Field Force, and subse- quently he had the chief command of the army in Afghanistan, where he achieved the most brilliant triumphs. After the massacre of our embassy. Sir Frederick Roberts re-occupied Cabul at the close of
1879. Towards the end of July.
1880, a teiTible defeat was inflicted by the troops of Ayoob Khan, at Maiwand, on General Burrows, the remnant of whose force with diffi- culty joined General Primrose's garrison at Candahar. An attack on that city seemed imminent, but Ayoob hesitated, and lost his oppor- tunity. Meanwhile, a bold resolu- tion was taken at Cabul. Sir Frederick Roberts, gathering a force of over 9,000 picked men, marched to the relief of Candahar, allowing Abdurrahman Khan to occupy Cabul, and leaving to General Stewart the duty of leading back the rest of the British troops by the Khyber to the Punjab. Sir Frederick Roberts, cut off from direct communication with his coxmtrymen, disappeared, as it were, from human ken for three weeks, during which time the na- tional anxiety was extreme. At length he emerged victorious from the trackless region between Cabul and Candahar. Immediately, he grappled with Ayoob Khan, and infiicted on that pretender a crush-