General, and in 1869 Major-General in the regular army. In 1867 he was placed in command of the military district of Virginia. In 1868 he was appointed Secretary of War, but he resigned in 1869, and was assigned to the command of the department of Missouri ; and in 1870 to that of the Pacific. From 1876 to 1881 he was Superintendent of the Military Academy at West Point. Since 1882 he has been in command of the department of the Pacific.
SCHOTT, WiLHELM, philologist and ethnologist, was born at Mayence in Sept. 1809, and gradua- ted as Doctor of Philosophy at Halle, in 1827, since which time he has devoted himself to the study of the Etiropean and Asiatic lan- guages. His first work, An Essay on flie Tartar Languages " (" Ver» such tiber die tatarischen Spra- chen "), appeared in 1836. In 1840 he was nominated a Professor in the High School of Berlin, and in 1842 a Fellow in ordinary of the Imperial Academy of Sciences of Berlin. The same year he pub- lished "De Lingu4 Tschuwas- chorum," in which he demonstrated the Turkish character of this idiom. In 18 i9 followed his work, " Con- cerning the Altaic or Finnish-Tatar group of Languages;" in 1854, "The Numeral in the Tschudic Class of Languages J*' and after this a yet unconcluded series of treatises entitled " Altaic Studies," 1860-72. Dr. Schott, who is Pro- fessor-Extraordinary in the Uni- versity of Berlin, has also written largely on the Chinese langiiage and literature, and on the Ugro- Finnish class of languages.
SCHURZ, Carl, was born at Liblar, near Cologne, Germany, March 2, 1829. He was educated at the Gymii^ii™ of that City, and at the University of Bonn. In 1848 he became associated with Gott- fried Kinkel, in editing a revolu- tionary journal, and subsequently in initiating a revolution. At the
surrender of the fortress of Ras- tadt, he escaped into Switzerland, whence, in May, 1850, he returned secretly to Germany and rescued Kinkel, who had been sentenced to twenty years' imprisonment in the fortress of Spandau. The two escaped to Leith, Scotland. Schurz went from thence to Paris as a newspaper correspondent, but a year later returned to London as a teacher. In 1852 he went to the United States, remained in Phila- delphia for three years, and then settled in Wisconsin, and became prominent as a political orator in the German language. The fol- lowing year he was nominated by the Biepublicans for Lieutenant- Governor of the State, but was defeated. In 1861 he was ap- pointed Minister to Spain, where he remained till Dec., 1861 ; re* turning to the United States, he resign^ his office, and entered the army, and in the May following was appointed Brigadier-General of Volunteers. In the autumn of 1863 he went to Tennessee, and took part in several battles, but resigned in 1864, and returned to his profes- sion of the law. In 1866 he re- moved to Detroit, Michigan, where he foimded and edited for some time the Detroit Post. In 1868 he removed to St. Louis, and in 1869 was elected U.S. senator from Mis- souri. In the Presidential canvas of 1872 he united with that poi-tion of the Republican party known as " Liberals," who nominated Mr. Greeley for President, in opposition te General Grant ; but on the de- feat of Mr. Greely he, with most of the "Liberals," returned to the regular Republican party ; and in 1876 took an active part in the canvass for Mr. Hayes, by whom he was, in 1877, appointed Secretary of the Interior. During his occu- pancy of that position he seconded Mr. Hayes* efforts at a reform of the civil service by instituting competitive examinations for ap- pointments to clerkships in his de- 3 B