SCH U VijiOFP--SCLATER.
Partinent. At the expiration of his term, 1881, he removed to New York, and is now the editor of the Evening Pott.
SCHUVALOFF, Count Pbtbb, is a descendant of a well-known Bnssian family which was ennobled in the beginning of the seventeenth centorj. Many members of that house have played highly important parts in the history of Bussia both as generals and as diplomatists. Count Peter Schuvaloff was born in 1828. He at first entered the military service^ and in 1861 was advanced to the rank of general. He filled successively the post of military attach^ in Paris^ of func- tionary in the Ministry of the In- terior, and Governor-General of the Baltic provinces. He was advanced subsequently to the post of Chief of the Secret Police, third section of the Imperial Chancellerie, which is in Bussia a highly important position, the occupant having, in a great measure, to deal with foreign affairs. This appointment was made in 1866, and for upwards of seven years Count Schuv41off re- tained that post, and enjoyed the most implicit confidence of his sovereign, upon whom he exercised greater influence than any of his colleagues. His appointment as Ambassador to Her Majesty Queen Victoria was looked upon by some in Bussia as a kind of exile. Some believed that he was sent to Eng- land owing to Prince GortschakofPs jealousy, the Prince looking upon him as his rival and aspirant for the post of Chancellor. Other reasons of a more private nature were likewise assigned for his ex- patriation, but on the other hand it was likewise said that the Czar had chosen him for liis repiesenta- tive in England on account of the confidence he reposed in the Count's ability, and in his devotion to the Emperor. If this latter motive was the real cause of the appoint- ment, events have proved the far- sightedness of the Czar, who could
not have had a better servant during the trying negotiations between the two countries. The evident success which had <at>wned his labours when the Count was sent on a special mission to this country previous to his appoint- ment as Ambassador, to iq>pea8e the susceptibilities of the then Gladstone cabinet respecting the Bussian expedition to Khiva, was no doubt another reason for his being entrusted with the post of Ambassador to England^ and the subsequent occurrences have shown the necessity of Bussia being ably represented. In a great measure it mav be attributed to Count Schuvaloff that, up to the present, England and Bussia avoided coming to an open rupture. AH through, however, the Count had been opposed to Prince Gortschakoff's policy, and was certainly his rival. On the occasion of his retiring from his post in London (Nov., 1879) the Czar appointed him a Knight of the St. Wladimir Order, First Class.
SCHWABZENBEBG, Cabdikal FsBDBSiCK VON, Pnuco Bishop of Prague, a member of the princely house bearing his name, was born April 6, 1809. Having completed his education, and taken holy orders, the prince became, in 1886, Bishop of Salzburg. In 1842 he was made a cardinal, and in 1848 was trans- lated as Prinoe Bishop of Pra^e, At the (Ecumenical Council of the Vatican (1869-70) the cardinal be- longed to the inopportunist party, but afterwards unreservedly ac- cepted the dogma of the infallibi- lity of the Sovereign Pontiff.
SCLATEB. Philip Lxitlet, M.A., Ph.D., F.B.S., second son of W. L. Sclater, Esq., of Hoddington House, Hants, born in 1829, was educated at Winchester School, and at the age of 16 was elected Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, where he graduated in 1849, taking a first claiss in mathematics. He was subsequently Fellow of the