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in the dark night by the needle, which is their connecting medium between the stone and the star, and shows them where they go alike in bad seasons as in good; so those who are to give counsel to the King, ought always to guide themselves by justice, which is the connecting medium between God and the world at all times, to give their guerdon to the good and their punishment to the wicked; to each according to his deserts."

The compass must have been well known and in general use before it would thus be referred to as a familiar illustration. The Partidas were begun in 1250, and compleated in seven years.

It is deserving of notice that in the works of Pedro Nuñez, the well known writer upon navigation who flourished early in the 16th century, the compass is called figura nautici instrumenti quod Hispanicum appellant.