*TRAINING COLLEGE TEACHERS*

could only half the ideal number of student-teachers be secured, undergraduate instruction could still be revolutionized; if in no better way, then by putting half the students in small sections one semester, and the other half there the next. With a little careful adjusting of schedules, most students would then receive close attention in two of four departments each semester.

3. It would not add one dollar to the annual budget, but, on the other hand, would actually reduce the latter by a considerable sum, inasmuch as many assistants could be dispensed with. It is impossible to compute accurately here, for the necessity of assistantships varies greatly from department to department. In the natural sciences, for instance, laboratory helpers will always be needed, however many student-teachers there are. But, in the freshman and sophomore work, the assistants in most of the departments only correct papers, hold quizes, etc.—all of which could as well be done—and better—by the student-teacher, who would have time for it and ought to learn it. If, now, we assume that only half of the assistants now employed in our leading colleges are doing such work, we shall find that our system would reduce the yearly running expenses of Brown by $2,522, those of California by $14,025, those of Harvard by $7,808, those of Chicago by $9,990, and those of Columbia by $17,500. These estimates are based upon the number of assistantships and the average salaries of the same as given in the second bulletin of the Carnegie Foundation. Half of these savings, devoted to small scholarships for worthy student-teachers, would doubtless help materially in maintaining the quality of candidiates. Part of the other half, added to the salary of those professors who supervised the staff of student-teachers, would stimulate competent men to turn from research and graduate teaching to education. At universities with good pedagogical departments, not a single new chair would have to be created; the general pedagogical work of the student-teacher's first graduate year is already offered, while the special courses for history teaching, mathematics teaching, etc., may be given by the already installed professors of these subjects. Probably every university of rank has, in each department, at least one man who can give such courses. He is, I fear, often inconspicuous, thanks to the overshadowing discoveries and books of his colleagues; but he can, for all that, be found and turned into his proper work.

4. It will hasten the differentiation between college and university. And, while these two institutions are still "siamesed," it will provide