34 called kalamanyal, 14 varf love, pre-nuit for poeti about twentyt other names for this favourite animal, belouging to Tamil alone, besides several others for the male anir.al and several more for the female. The cars were decorated with flags and trappings, (terchchtlat). The royal revenue, besides the proceeds from the royal lands, were derived from taxes (varz),3 tolls, (sungam, 4 ulgu, 5 irai), and tributes (kappam,? parisu, s tiyaz).9 Love The chief royal occupations or amusements (for in the case of kings, it is difficult to distinguish amusements from occupations) were love and war, both of which formed the subject of innumerable odes sung by the early bards. Love and war were respectively called agam10 and puram, 11 the inner life which one cannot share with other men and the outer life of action which other men can appreciate and admire. The love of kings and other men was of two kinds. (1) Love at first sight, so impetuous as to lead to immediate consummation, called kalavu, 12 to be leisurely legitimatized by a formal marriage, (manam, 13 mangal, 14 varaivuu, 1 s vēstal) 16. (2) Post-nuptial love, called karpu.17 The course of love, pre-nuptial or post-nuptial, furnished the bards with innumerable incidents fit for poetic treatment and this is the subject of three chapters of the grammar of poetry, called Poruladigaram, 18 of Tolkappiyam, viz., Agattinazyżyal, 19 (referring to both), 20 Kalaviyal,21 Kar piyal. 22 The chief incidents of the course of both forms of love, viz., the first catastrophic meeting of the lovers called iyarkaippunarchchi, 23 their waiting in expectation of meeting each other, iruttal, 24 lamentations for temporary separation irangal, 25 brief and long quárrels and reconciliations, pulavi, 26 udal27 and kūdal, 28 and the parting of lovers, piridal, 29 were respectively correlated to the five natural regions, Kurinji, Mullai, Neydal, Marudam and Palai. The fact that Tamil literary conventions arose absolutely independent of the literary conventions of the Vedic and other early Sanskrit literature, shows that the correlations of the incidents of love with natural regions, peculiar to Tamil poetry, were based on actual customs which prevailed among the Tamil people in the third millennium B.C., and earlier. We can understand how these customs, i.e., social conventions, on which the literary conventions were based, first arose. The romantic scenery of Kurinji land is the greatest stimulus of love and the opportunities it affords for immediate consummation fans the flame of impetuosity which is the special characteristic of Kurinji love. Pre-nuptial love must have been the norm in the nountainous region, and the life of the hunter. In the Muliai region, the herdsman-lover had to be separated all day long from the mistress of his heart and hence the waiting of lovers for each other was associated with this region. In the Neydal, the woman has to sit desolate for days together, when her lover has gone on a voyage attended with risks to ISuch as அழகு, ஆம்பல், இம்மடி, உம்பல், உவா, எறும்பு, ஒருத்தல், இங்கல், கடிவை, கள்வன், கறையடி, கைப்புவி, கைம்மலை, கைம்மா, கோட்டுமா, சண்டாலி, குகை, திண்டி, தும் 3, அங்கல், தெள்ளி, தோல், கால்வாய், நூழில், பகடு, புகர்முகம், புழக்கை, பூட்கை, பெருமா, பொங்கடி, மாரண்மா, மறமலி, மொய், வயமா, வல்லிவங்கு, வமுவை, வேழம், தேர்ச்சிலை. வரி +சங்கம, உலரு. இறை, கப்பம். பேரிசு. திறை 10அகம். 11புறம். 12சளவு . 13 word. 1 p. 15 amrar. 16 CALL^. 17.04. 18 Quroersru. 19 அகத்திணையியல். 20புறத்திணையியல், 21களவியல், 22கற்பியல். 25 இயற்கைப்புணர்ச்சி, 24இருத்தல். 25 இரங்கல் 27 . 284 . Adv.