2. All that we are is the result of what we have thought: it is founded on our thoughts, it is made up of our thoughts. If a man speaks or acts with a pure thought, happiness follows him, like a shadow that never leaves him.
3. 'He abused me, he beat me, he defeated me, he robbed me,'—in those who harbour such thoughts hatred will never cease.
4. 'He abused me, he beat me, he defeated me, he robbed me,'—in those who do not harbour such thoughts hatred will cease.
seems not applicable here, where we have to deal with the simplest moral precepts, and not with psychological niceties of Buddhist philosophy. It should be stated, however, that Childers, who first (s.v. dhamma) approved of my translation, seems afterwards to have changed his opinion. On p. 120 of his excellent Pali Dictionary he said : * Three of the five khandhas, viz. vedand, samid, and sah- khdra, are collectively termed dhamma (plur.), " mental faculties," and in the first verse of Dhammapada the commentator tjr^es the word dhammi to mean those three faculties. But this interpretation appears forced and unnatural, and 1 look upon Dr. Max Muller's translation, " All that we are is the result of what we have thought," as the best possible rendering of the spirit of the phrase mano pub- bahgam^ dhamma.' But on p. 57 7 the same scholar writes : 'Of the four mental khandhas the superiority of winnindi is strongly asserted in the first verse of Dhammapada, " The mental faculties (vedan^, samla, and sahkhara) are dominated by Mind, they are governed by Mind, they are made up of Mind." That this is the true meaning of the passage I am now convinced ; see D' AlwiS, Nir- wana, pp. 70-75.' I do not deny that this may have been the tra- ditional interpretation, at all events since the days of Buddhaghosa, but the very legend quoted by Buddhaghosa in illustration of this verse shows that its simpler and purely moral interpretation was likewise supported by tradition, and I therefore adhere to my original translation. . See Beal, Dhammapada, p. 169. . On akko^^^i, see Ka^Hyana VI, 4, 17. D'Alwis, Pdli Grammar, p. 38 note. * When akko^Mi means " he abused," it is derived from krux, not from krudh.' See Senart, Ka^^ayana, 1. c. Digitized by Google