and to those who sought to excite sedition in the Muslim ranks. Reproof to the hypocrites and half-hearted and to those who found fault with the prophet for his use of the alms (zakât). Proper destination of the alms. Hypocrites and renegades denounced: they are warned by the example of the people of old, who rejected the prophets. Rewards promised to the true believers. Continued denunciation of the hypocrites and of those who held back from the fight. Mohammed is not to pray at the grave of any one of them who dies: their seeming prosperity is not to deceive him. Happiness in store for the Apostle, the believers, and the Muhgerîn. Those who may lawfully be excused military service. The desert Arabs are among the worst of the 'hypocrites;' though some believe. Some people of Medînah also denounced as hypocrites: others have sinned, but confessed: others wait for God’s pleasure. Denunciation of some who had set up a mosque from motives of political opposition. Mohammed is not to sanction this mosque, but rather to use that of Qubâʼ, founded by him while on his way from Mecca to Medînah during the Flight. God has bought the persons and wealth of the believers at the price of Paradise. The prophet and the believers must not ask forgiveness for the idolaters however near of kin. Abraham only asked pardon for his idolatrous father in fulfilment of a promise. The three Ansârs who refused to accompany Mohammed to Tabûk are forgiven. The people of Medînah and the neighbouring Arabs blamed for holding back on the occasion. All sacrifices for the sake of the religion are counted to them. Exhortation to fight rigorously against the infidels. Reproof to those who receive the revelation suspiciously. God will stand by His Apostle.
Ⅹ. The Chapter of Jonah. (Mecca.)
No wonder that the Qurʼân was revealed to a mere man. Misbelievers deem him a sorcerer. God the creator and ruler: no one can intercede with Him except by His permission. Creation is a sign of His power. Reward hereafter for the believers. Man calls on God in distress, but forgets Him when deliverance comes. Warning from the fall of former generations. The infidels are not satisfied with the Qurʼân: Mohammed dare not invent a false revelation. False gods can neither harm nor profit them. People require a sign. God saves people in dangers by land and sea. This life is like grass. Promise of Paradise and threat of Hell.