Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/381

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with, but more usually without, a copula expressed: thus, agnír iva ná pratidhṛ́ṣe bhavati (TS.) like fire, he is not to be resisted; mahimā́ te anyéna ná saṁnáçe (VS.) thy greatness is not to be attained by another; nákim índro níkartave ná çakráḥ páriçaktave (RV.) Indra is not to be put down, the mighty one is not to be overpowered.

d. Sometimes an infinitive so used without a copula has quite nearly the value of an imperative: thus, tyā́ me yaçásā... āuçijó huvádhyāi [asti] (RV.) these glorious ones shall the son of Uçij invoke for me; sūktébhir vaḥ... índrā nv àgnī́ ávase huvádhyāi [staḥ] (RV.) with your hymns shall ye call now on Indra and Agni for aid; vandádhyā agníṁ námobhiḥ [asmi] (RV.) let me greet Agni with homage; asmā́kāsaç ca sūráyo víçvā ā́çās tarīṣáṇi (RV.) and let our sacrifices cross all regions; tán nāí ’váṁ kártavāí (MS.) that must not be done so; brahmadvíṣaḥ çárave hántavā́ u (RV.) let the arrow slay the brahma-haters. The infinitives in dhyāi and ṣaṇi (which latter is in all its uses accordant with datives) are those in which the imperative value is most distinctly to be recognized.

e. In the Brāhmaṇas and Sūtras (especially in ÇB.) the dative in tavāi is not seldom used with a verb signifying speak (brū, vac, ah), to express the ordering of anything to be done: thus, tásmād óṣadhīnām evá mū́lāny úcchettavāí brūyāt (ÇB.) therefore let him direct the roots of the plants to be cut up (speak in order to their cutting up: cf. yé vaçā́yā ádānāya vádanti who dissuade from giving the cow: AV.).

983. The ablative infinitive — which, like the accusative, is made only from the root-noun and that in tu — is found especially with the prepositions ā́ until and purā́ before.

a. Thus, ā́ támitoḥ (TS. etc.) until exhaustion; purā́ vācáḥ právaditoḥ (TS.) before utterance of the voice. In the Brāhmaṇa language, this is the well-nigh exclusive construction of the ablative (it occurs also with prāk, arvāk, etc.); in the Veda, the latter is used also after ṛté without, and after several verbs, as trā and protect, yu separate, bhī, etc.

b. In a few instances, by an attraction similar to that illustrated above for the dative (982 a), a noun dependent on this infinitive is put in the ablative beside it: thus, purā vāgbhyaḥ sampravaditoḥ (PB.) before the utterance together of the voices; trā́dhvaṁ kartā́d avapádaḥ (RV.) save us from falling down into the pit; purā dakṣiṇābhyo netoḥ (Āpast.) before the gifts are taken away.

984. The genitive infinitive (having the same form as the ablative) is in common use in the Brāhmaṇa language as dependent on īçvará lord, master, employed adjectively in the sense of capable or likely or exposed to.

a. Examples are: tā́ [devátāḥ] īçvarā́ enam pradáhaḥ (TS.) they are likely to burn him up; átha ha vā́ īçvarò ‘gníṁ citvā́ kíṁcid dāuritám ā́pattor ví vā hválitoḥ (ÇB.) so in truth he is liable,