the periphrastic perfect palāyāṁ cakre. The stem palyay, similarly inflected, occurs only in one or two texts (ÇB. JB. JUB.); and plāy has been found nowhere except in MS. Also the imperfect nílāyata (TS. TB.: not separated in the pada-text) and perfect nilayā́ṁ cakre (ÇB.) are doubtless a corresponding formation from √i with nis, though nearly akin in form and meaning with forms from √lī+ni. So also pari becomes pali in the combination palyan̄g (ÇB. ÇÇS.), whether viewed as a denominative formation or as √an̄g+pari. And MS. has once plā́kṣārayan (iii. 10. 2; in an etymology).
d. The root kṛ make sometimes assumes (or retains from a more original condition) an initial a after the prefixes sam, pari, nis, and upa: thus, saṁskurute, samaskurvan, saṁskṛta, etc.; pariṣkṛṇvanti, pariṣkṛta, etc.; nír askṛta; upaskṛta. And √kṛ scatter is said by the grammarians to add s in the same manner, under certain circumstances, after apa and prati (only apaskiramāṇa, praticaskare, both late, are quotable).
e. The passive participle of the roots dā give and dā cut has often the abbreviated form tta after a prefix — of which the final vowel, if i, is lengthened (compare 955 f, and the derivative in ti, below, 1157 c).
f. In a few sporadic cases, the augment is taken before a prefix, instead of between it and the root: thus, avaṣaṭkārṣīt (GB.); udaprapatat (AB.); anvasaṁcarat, pratyasaṁharat, pratyavyūhat, anvavīkṣetām, aprāiṣīt, asambhramat (MBh.); abhyanimantrayat (Har.); vyāvasthāpi (SDS.); compare also the forms from palāy, above, c. And AB. has once niniyoja (for niyuyoja, as read in the corresponding passage of ÇÇS.). Some of the apparent roots of the language have been suspected of being results of a similar unification of root and prefix: e. g. āp from ā+ap, vyac from vi+ac, tyaj from ati+aj.
g. The loss of the initial s of sthā and stambh after the prefix ud has been noticed above (233 c). Also (137 a, c), certain peculiarities of combination of a prefix with the initial vowel of a root.
1088. As to the more general adverbial uses of the prefixes, and their prepositional uses, see the next chapter.
1089. As to the combination of the particles a or an privative, dus ill, and su well, with verb-forms, see 1121 b,g,i. As to the addition of the comparative and superlative suffixes tarām and tamām to verbs, see above, 473 c.
1090. It has been seen above that some of the prepositional prefixes are employed in combination with only very small classes of roots, namely those whose meaning makes them best fitted for auxiliary and periphrastic uses such as kṛ make, bhū and as be, dhā put, i go — and that the first of these are widely used in com-