Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/497

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they would have in composition: thus, adíkka (diç), ṣaṭka, -viṭka, -tviṭka (ṣaṣ etc.). Anāçīrka (TS.: āçis) is anomalous; and so is parutka (Āpast.), if it comes from parus.

1223. Several suffixes, partly of rare occurrence and questionable character, contain a न् n as consonantal element, and may be grouped together here.

a. A few derivatives in āna in RV. were given above (1175 a).

b. With ānī (which is perhaps the corresponding feminine) are made a small number of words, chiefly wife-names: thus, indrāṇī́, varuṇānī́ (these, with uçīnárāṇī, purukútsānī, mudgā́lanī, ūrjā́nī, are found in RV.), rudrāṇī, mātulānī maternal uncle's wife, çarvāṇī, bhavānī, içānānī, çakrāṇī, upādhyāyānī, mṛḍānī, brahmāṇī; and yavānī.

c. The feminines in and knī from masculine stems in ta have been already noticed above (1176 d). From páti master, husband the feminine is pátnī, both as independent word, spouse, and as final of an adjective compound: thus, devápatnī having a god for husband, síndhupatnī having the Indus as master. And the feminine of paruṣá rough is in the older language sometimes páruṣṇī.

d. With īna are made a full series of adjective derivatives from the words with final añc (407 ff.); they are accented usually upon the penult, but sometimes on the final; and the same word has sometimes both accents: for example, apācī́na, nīcī́na, prācī́na, arvācī́na and arvācīná, pratīcī́na and pratīcīná, samīcīná. Besides these, a number of other adjectives, earlier and later: examples are saṁvatsarī́na yearly, prāvṛṣī́ṇa of the rainy season, viçvajanī́na of all people, jñātakulī́na of known family, adhvanīna traveller (ádhvan way), āçvīna day's journey on horseback (áçva horse). RV. has once mā́kīna mine.

e. With ena is made sāmidhená (f. -nī́), from samídh, with initial strengthening.

f. As to a few words in ina, compare 1209 c.

g. The adjectives made with simple na fall partly under another head (below, 1245 f); here may be noted çū́raṇa heroic (?), phálguna, çmaçruṇá, dadruṇa, and, with vṛddhi-strengthening, strāíṇa woman's (its correlative, pāuṁsna, occurs late) and cyāutná inciting. If dróṇa comes from dru wood, it has the anomaly of a guṇa-strengthening.

1224. Certain suffixes containing a म् m may be similarly grouped.

a. With ima are made a small number of adjectives from nouns in tra: thus, khanítrima made by digging, kṛtríma artificial, dattrima, paktrima, pūtríma; in other finals, kuṭṭima, gaṇima, talima, tulima, pākima, udgārima, vyāyogima, saṁvyūhima, nirvedhima, āsan̄gima, all late. In agrima (RV.) foremost the ma has perhaps the ordinal value.

b. The uses of simple ma in forming superlatives (474) and ordinals (487 d, e) have been already noticed, and the words thus made specified.