set, vamraká ant, arbhaká small, çiçuká young, aṇīyaska finer, ejatká trembling, abhimādyatká intoxicated, patayiṣṇuká flying. Such derivatives in the later language are innumerable; from almost any given noun or adjective may be made an equivalent, ending in ka or kā (according to the gender).
g. From compound primitives: svalpaká very small, vímanyuka removing wrath, vikṣiṇatká destroying, pravartamānaká moving forward, viksīṇaká destroyed.
h. In the Brāhmaṇas and later, ka is often added to a possessive adjective compound (1307), sometimes redundantly, but usually in order to obtain a more manageable stem for inflection: thus, anakṣíka eyeless, atvakká skinless, aretáska without seed, vyasthaka boneless, saçiraska along with the head, ekagāyatrīka containing a single gāyatrī-verse, gṛhītávasatīvarīka one who has taken yesterday's water, sapatnīka with his spouse, bahuhastíka having many elephants, sadīkṣopasátka with dīkṣā and upasad, āhitasamitka with his fuel laid on, abhinavavayaska of youthful age, an̄guṣṭhamātraka of thumb size.
i. The vowel by which the ka is preceded has often an irregular character; and especially, a feminine in ikā is so common beside a masculine in aka as to be its regular correspondent (as is the case with the so-called primary aka: above, 1181). In RV. are found beside one another only iyattaká and iyattikā́; but AV. has several examples.
j. Two suffixes made up of ka and a preceding vowel — namely, aka and ika — are given by the grammarians as independent secondary suffixes, requiring initial vṛddhi-strengthening of the primitive. Both of them are doubtless originally made by addition of ka to a final i or a, though coming to be used independently.
k. Of vṛddhi-derivatives in aka no examples have been noted from the older language (unless māmaká mine is to be so regarded); and they are not common in the later: thus, āvaçyaka necessary, vārddhaka old age, rāmaṇīyaka delightfulness.
l. Of vṛddhi-derivatives in ika, the Veda furnishes a very few cases: vā́santika vernal, vā́rṣika of the rainy season, hāímantika wintry (none of them in RV.); AV. has kāirātikā́ of the Kirātas, apparent fem. to a masc. kāirātaka, which is not found till later. Examples from a more recent period (when they become abundant) are: vāidika relating to the Vedas, dhārmika religious, āhnika daily, vāinayika well-behaved, dāuvārika doorkeeper, nāiyāyika versed in the Nyāya.
m. Before the suffix ka, some finals show a form which is characteristic of external rather than internal combination. A final sonant mute, of course, becomes surd, and an aspirate loses its aspiration (117 a, 114): cf. -upasatka, -samitka, above, h. So also a palatal becomes guttural (as before t etc.: 217): e. g. -srukka, -rukka, -tvakka, anṛkka. A s remains after ā˘, and becomes ṣ after an alterant vowel (180): e. g. sadyaska, jyotiṣka, dirghāyuṣka. But the other sibilants take the form