Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/495

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that value it still has in actual use; yet only in a small minority of occurrences. It has been, on the one hand, specialized into an element forming diminutives; and, on the other hand, and much more widely, attenuated into an element without definable value, added to a great many nouns and adjectives to make others of the same meaning — this last is, even in the Veda, and still more in the later language, its chief office.

a. Hence, ka easily associates itself with the finals of derivatives to which it is attached, and comes to seem along with them an integral suffix, and is further used as such. Of this origin are doubtless, as was seen above (1180, 1181), the so-called primary suffixes uka and aka; and likewise the secondary suffix ika (below; j).

b. The accent of derivatives in ka varies — apparently without rule, save that the words most plainly of diminutive character have the tone usually on the suffix.

c. Examples (from the older language) of words in which the suffix has an adjective-making value are: ántaka (ánta) end-making, bálhīka (bálhi) of Balkh, āṇḍī́ka (āṇḍá) egg-bearing, sūcī́ka (sūcī́) stinging, urvāruká fruit of the gourd (urvārú), paryāyiká (paryāyá) strophic; from numerals, ekaká, dvaká, triká, áṣṭaka; tṛ́tīyaka of the third day; from pronoun-stems, asmā́ka ours, yuṣmā́ka yours, mámaka mine (516 d); from prepositions, ántika near, ánuka following, ávakā a plant (later adhika, utka); and, with accent retracted to the initial syllable (besides áṣṭaka and tṛ́tīyaka, already given), rū́paka (rūpá) with form, bábhruka (babhrú brown) a certain lizard. Bhāvatka your worship's has an anomalous initial vṛddhi.

d. Of words in which a diminutive meaning is more or less probable: açvaká nag, kanī́naka and kumāraká boy, kanīnakā́ or kanī́nikā girl, pādaká little foot, putraká little son, rājaká princeling, çakuntaká birdling. Sometimes a contemptuous meaning is conveyed by such a diminutive: for formations with this value from pronominal stems, see above, 521; other examples are anyaká (RV.), álakam (RV.: from álam), and even the verb-form yāmaki (for yāmi: KB.).

e. The derivatives in ka with unchanged meaning are made from primitives of every variety of form, simple and compound, and have the same variety of accent as the adjective derivatives (with which they are at bottom identical). Thus:

f. From simple nouns and adjectives: ástaka home, nā́sikā nostril, mákṣikā fly, avikā́ ewe, iṣukā́ arrow, dūraká distant, sarvaká all, dhénukā (dhenú) cow, nágnaka (nagná) naked, báddhaka (baddhá) captive, abhinnataraka by no means different, anastamitaké before sun-