Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/506

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a. The words are: kavitvaná, janitvaná, patitvaná (also JB.), martyatvaná, mahitvaná, vasutvaná, vṛṣatvaná, sakhitvaná.

1241. A few suffixes make no change in the character as part of speech of the primitive to which they are added, but either are merely formal appendages, leaving the value of the word what it was before, or make a change of degree, or introduce some other modification of meaning.

1242. The suffixes of comparison and ordinal suffixes have for the most part been treated already, and need only a reference here.

a. तर tara and तम tama are the usual secondary suffixes of adjective comparison: respecting their use as such, see above, 471–473; respecting the use of tama as ordinal etc. suffix, see 487–8; respecting that of their accusatives as adverbial suffixes to prepositions etc., see 1111 e.

b. In vṛtratára and purutáma (RV.) the, accent is anomalous; in mṛdayáttama, it is drawn forward to the final of the participle, as often in composition (1309); çaçvattamá (RV.) has the ordinal accent; saṁvatsaratamá (ÇB.) is an ordinal; dívātara (RV., once: an error?) is an ordinary adjective, of the day; surabhíṣṭama and tuvíṣṭama insert a s; kārotará and kāulitará are probably vṛddhi-derivatives in a. In vatsatará (f. -rī́) weanling, açvatará mule, and dhenuṣṭarī́ cow losing her milk, the application of the suffix is peculiar and obscure; so also in rathaṁtará, name of a certain sāman.

c. र ra and म ma, like tara and tama, have a comparative and superlative value; and the latter of them forms ordinals: see above, 474, 487.

d. थ tha, like tama and ma, forms ordinals from a few numerals: see 487 c; also (with fem. in -thī́) from tati, kati, yati, iti: thus, tatithá so-many-eth etc.

e. Apparently by false analogy with tatithá etc. (above, d), the quasi-ordinals tāvatitha, yāvatitha, bahutitha are made, as if with a suffix titha (also katititha, late, for katithá); and, it is said, from other words meaning a number or collection, as gaṇa, pūga, saṁgha; but none such are quotable.

1243. Of diminutive suffixes there are none in Sanskrit with clearly developed meaning and use. The occasional employment of ka, in a somewhat indistinct way, to make diminutives, has been noticed above (1222).

1244. Of the ordinary adjective-making suffixes, given above, some occasionally make adjectives from adjectives, with slight or imperceptible modification of value. The only one used to any considerable extent in this way is ka: as to which, see 1222.