Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/535

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sages, svāyambhuvādyāḥ saptāi ’te manavaḥ those seven Manus, Svāyambhuva etc., agniṣṭomādikān the sacrifices Agnishtoma and so on. Or the qualified noun is omitted, as in annapānendhanādīni food, drink, fuel, etc., dānadharmādikaṁ caratu bhavān let your honor practise liberality, religious rites, and the like. The particles evam and iti are also sometimes used by substitution as prior members: thus, evamādi vacanam words to this and the like effect; ato ‘ham bravīmi kartavyaḥ saṁcayo nityam ityādi hence I say "accumulation is ever to be made" etc.

e. Used in much the same way, but less often, is prabhṛti beginning: thus, viçvāvasuprabhṛtibhir gandharvāiḥ with the Gandharvas Viçvāvasu etc.; especially adverbially, in measurements of space and time, as tatprabhṛti or tataḥprabhṛti thenceforward.

f. Words meaning foregoer, predecessor, and the like — namely, pūrva, pūrvaka, puraḥsara, puraskṛta, purogama — are often employed in a similar manner, and especially adverbially, but for the most part to denote accompaniment, rather than antecedence, of that which is designated by the prior member of the compound: e. g. smitapūrvam with a smile, anāmayapraçnapūrvakam with inquiries after health, pitāmahapurogama accompanied by the Great Father.

g. The noun mātrā measure stands as final of a compound which is used adjectively or in the substantive neuter to signify a limit that is not exceeded, and obtains thus the virtual value of mere, only: thus, jalamātreṇa vartayan living by water only (lit. by that which has water for its measure or limit), garbhacyutimātreṇa by merely issuing from the womb, prāṇāyātrikamātraḥ syāt let him be one possessing what does not exceed the preservation of life; uktamātre tu vacane but the words being merely uttered.

h. The noun artha object, purpose is used at the end of a compound, in the adverbial accusative neuter, to signify for the take of or the like: thus, yajñasiddhyartham in order to the accomplishment of the sacrifice (lit. in a manner having the accomplishment of the sacrifice as its object), damayantyartham for Damayantī's sake (with Damayantī as object).

i. Other examples are ābhā, kalpa, in the sense of like, approaching: thus, hemābha gold-like, mṛtakalpa nearly dead, pratipannakalpa almost accomplished;vidhā, in the sense of kind, sort: thus, tvadvidha of thy sort, púruṣavidha of human kind;prāya, in the sense of mostly, often, and the like: thus, duḥkhaprāya full of pain, tṛṇaprāya abounding in grass, nirgamanaprāya often going out;antara (in substantive neuter), in the sense of other: thus, deçāntara another region (lit. that which has a difference of region), janmāntarāṇi other existences, çākhāntare in another text.

1303. In appositional possessive compounds, the second member, if it designates a part of the body, sometimes logically signifies that part to which what is designated by the prior member belongs, that on or in which it is.