Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1899 American Edition.djvu/1044

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688

GERMAN EMPIRE : — WURTTEMBERG

The emigration from Wiirttemberg, chiefly to the United States of America, was as follows for eight years: —

1890

1891 6,182

1892

1893

1894

1895

1896

1897

5,987

5,728

5,401

2,343

2,398

2,121

1,401

The population in 1895 of the largest towns was as follows : —

Stuttgart

158,321

Ludwigsburg

19,311

Ulm

39,304

Gmiind

17,282

Heilbronn

33,461

Gcippingen

16,183

Esslingen

24,031

Tubingen

13,976

Cannstatt

22,590

Ravensburg

12,694

Reutlingen

19,822

Tuttlingen

11,672

Religion.

The various creeds were distributed as follows at the last religious census, 1895 :—

Creed

Numbers

Per Cent, of Population

Evangelicals

Roman Catholics

Other Christians

Jews .....

Others ....

1,440,240

621,474

7,451

11,887

99

69-2

29-9 0-36 0-57 0-004

The administration of the Evangelical Church is in the hands of a con- sistorium of one president, nine councillors, and six general superintendents, at Ludwigsburg, Heilbronn, Reutlingen, Tiibingen, Hall, and Ulm. In the king is vested, according to the Constitution, the supreme direction as well as the guardianship — ' obersthoheitliche Scliutz und Aufsichtsrecht ' — of the Evangelical Protestant Church. The Roman Catholics, most numerous in the southern part of the Kingdom, comprising the circle of the Danube, are under a bishop, who has his seat at Rottenburg, but who, in all important matters, has to act in conjunction with a Catholic church-council — Kirchenrath — ap- pointed by the Government. The Jews likewise are under a special council (Oberkirchenbehorde), nominated by the king on the proposition of the Minister of Ecclesiastical Affairs.

Instruction.

Education is compulsory in Wiirttemberg, and there must be one public school or more in every commune. According to recent official returns, there is not an individual in the kingdom, above the age of ten, unable to read and write. There are 2,319 elementaiy public schools with (1897) 4,793 teachers, attendedby 297,568 pupils ; 83 Realschulen with 9,307 pupils; 67 grammar schools ; 19 classical colleges (gymnasia), of which 4 are training colleges for the Protestant clergy, and 6 lyceums, having (1897) together 8,386 scliolars. The whole educational system is completed by the University of Tiibingen (founded in 1477). There are, besides, the Technical University (Polytech- nicum) at Stuttgart, and several agricultural and other special institutes. The funds appropriated by the State to educational puq^oses amounted in 1895-96 to 6*6 million marks, not including the sums bestowed on public schools by the parishes or out of the revenue of foundations.