Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1899 American Edition.djvu/1091

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JUSTICE AND CRIME

735

The following is a list of the twenty-one universities of Italy, with statistics for 1897-98 :—

State Univer- sities : — Bologna Cagliari Catania Genoa Macerata Messina Modena Naples Padua Palermo Parma Pavia

j Date of

No. of

Students .

Founda-

Teach-

and 1

tion

ers^

Auditors

1

i

1200

66

1,507

1626

32

241

1434

48

906

1243

64

1,256

1290

11

310

1549

45

591

1 1678

45

435

' 1224

81

5,465

, 1222

71

1,588 '

' 1805

61

1,222 1

1512

42

550 ;

1300

53

1,321 '

Pisa .

Rome

Sassari

Siena

Turin

Free Univer- sities : — Camerino . Ferrara PeiTigia Urbino

Total .

Date of

Founda

tion

1338 1303 1677 1300 1404

1727 1391 1276 1564

No. of iStudent.s

Teach- and .

crs 1 I Auditors

56 75 24 31 6S

18 22 26 14

1,087

2,300

148

231

2,551

234

77

320

100

962 i22,440

1 Official only, exclusive of 'liberi docenti.'

In 1895-96 university courses under 22 professors were attended by 203 students at the licei of Aquila, Bari, and Catanzaro.

There were besides (1895-96) 13 university institutions, with 2,668 students ; 9 superior special schools, with 813 students ; 33 special and practical schools of agriciUture (1897), with 1,137 students ; 2 schools of mining (1897), with 82 students ; 196 industrial and commercial schools (1896), with 30,398 students; 15 Government fine art institutes (1897), with 3,359 students ; 6 Government institutes and conservatoires of music (1897), with 913 students.

In 1891 there were in Italy over 1,831 libraries. Of these, 33 were Government libraries, with 1,277,835 readers, who had 1,662, 083 books-given out (1897).

On December 31, 1895, there were in Italy 1,901 periodical publications. Of these, 479 were political ; 327 were economic, juridical, or on social science ; 202 agricultural ; 243 religious ; 169 literary and scientific ; 138 medical ; the remainder being artistic, military, geographical or humorous publications. In foreign countries there are about 130 periodicals publislied in Italian.

In 1897 there were 9,732 books publislied in Italy, comprising 761 religious books ; 931 scholastic and educational ; 546 historical and geographical; 399 biographical ; 1,515 of poetry and general literature; 309 in mathematical, physical, and natural science ; 1,053 in medicine ; 1,011 in agi-iculture, the industries, commerce, &c.

Justice and Grime.

In Italy, justice in penal matters is administered in the first instance by the Pretori, by the penal Tribunals, and by the Courts of assize ; on appeal, by the penal Tribunals, and by the Courts of Appeal. The highest court is the Court of Cassation, which confines itself to inquiring whether the forms prescribed by law have been observed.