Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1899 American Edition.djvu/1188

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This page needs to be proofread.


832

NETHERLANDS : — EAST INDIES

with 7,176 pupils. lu 1875 the Government spent 803,906 guilders for the education of natives, and in 1896 1,276,311 guilders.

For foreign Orientals there were in 1896 about 466 schools with 8,580 pupils.

Justice and Crime.

The administration of justice is based on the principle that Europeans and persons assimilated with them are subject to laws nearly similar to those of the mother-country, Avhile the natives are subject to their own customs and institutions. The administration of justice for Europeans is entrusted to European judges, while for natives their own chiefs have a large share in the trial of cases.

There is a High Court of Justice at Batavia — courts of justice at Batavia Samarang, Soerabaya, Padang, and Makassar — Resident and Regent courts, courts of circuit, district courts, and courts of priests.

The number of natives condemned for serious crimes in 1895 was 11,280 ; for police offences, 9,212; while it was in 1882, 11,701 and 6,667. There are about 300 prisons ; their population was 22,140 at the end of 1895.

The relations of the State to j)auperism are limited to subvention to Pro- testant and Catholic orphan-houses ; for this purpose the budget contains about 100,000 guilders yearly.

Finance.

The local revenue is derived from land, taxes on houses and estates,

rom licences, customs duties, personal imposts, the Government monopolies

of salt and opium, railways, and a number of indirect taxes. But the chief part

of the large profits is indirect, being obtained by the sale of a vast amount of

coffee, grown under the 'culture system,' and sold in India and Europe,

The following table shows the revenue and expenditure for 1870, 1880 1890, and 1894-98 :—

Year

Revenue

Guilders

1870

123,525,000

1880

146,838,000

1890

137,789,482

1894

128,418,699

1895

131,242,887

1896

133,091.391

1897

129,634,774

1898

139,412,904

Expenditure

Surplus or Deficit

Guilders 115,765,000 146,936,000 127,736,739 138,683,776 139,458,999 143,779,363 148,922,452 154,519,438

Guilders + 7,760,000 98,000 + 10,052,743

- 10,265,077

- 8,216,112

- 12,269,972

- 19,287,678

- 15,106,534

The percentage of the different sources of revenue is shown in the follow- ing table

Year

Taxes

Monopolies i

Products 2

Other Receipts 13-2

Total

1893

36-2

19-3

31-3

100

1894

35-9

24-5

24-1

15-5

100

1895

37-0

24-3

22-9

15-8

100

1896

36-0

24-7

23-3

16-0

100

1897

37-7

25-6

20-0

16-7

100

1898

36-3

24-1

22-4

17-2

100

J <)l>iu)ii and salt, etc.

Coffee, ciuchonB, tin, and coal,