Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1899 American Edition.djvu/1189

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FINANCE — DEFENCE

833

The budget estimates for 1899 are :- Home government expenditure Expenditure in the Colonies

Revenues in the mother country ,1 ,, Colonies .

Guilders

29,485,202

116,600,742

17,075,964 115,666,550

Deficit

146,085,944

132,742,514 13,343,430

The sources of revenue are stated as follows :

Receipts in the Netherlands from sales of Government coffee (7,543,168 guilders), cinchona {148,500 guilders), tin (7,164,729 guilders), railways (925,000 guilders), share of the State in the profits of the Biliton Company (470,000 guilders), various (824,567 guilders).

Receipts in India from sales of opium (18,860,000 guilders), im}»ort, export, and excise duties (17,211,500 guilders), land revenues (19,806,100 guilders), sales of coffee (6,626,600 guilders), sales of salt (8,807,000 guilders), railways (10,975,000), from all other sources (33,380,350 guilders).

About one-third of the annual expenditure is for the army and navy, and another third for the geneml administration, both in Java and in the Nether- lands.

Defence.

The army is purely colonial. At the end of 1896 the strength of the army was 1,466 officers and 40,195 sub-officers and soldiers, comprising 16,066 Europeans, 55 Africans, 3,662 Amboinese, and 20,412 natives. The number of horses was 1,428. No portion of the regular army of the Netherlands is allowed to be sent on colonial service ; but individual soldiers are at liberty to enlist, by permission of their commanding officers, and they form the nucleus of the army of Dutch India. The native and European soldiers are not divided into separate corps, but generally mixed together, though in separate companies in the same battalions. The artilleiy is com- posed of European gunners, with native riders, while the cavalry are Europeans and natives.

The infantry, which is the most important branch of the army in Dutch India, is divided into field, garrison, and depot battalions. Each battalion is composed of four companies, two companies consisting of European soldiers and two of natives, or one of Europeans and three of natives. The 'half- castes ' are on a footing of perfect eqiiality with the Europeans. The whole of the commissioned officers are Europeans, with the exception of a few natives of high rank to whom honorary ranks are given ; in each of the com- panies composed of natives, at least one-half of the non-commissioned ofiicers must also be Europeans. A military academy is established at Meester Cornelis, near Batavia. Schools for soldiers are attached to. every battalion.

Unlike the army, which is i)urely colonial, the navy in Dutch India is partly colonial, partly belonging to*^ the royal navy, and its expenses are therefore borne partly by the mother-country and partly by the colony. (See 'Defence,' mother-country. ) 'The personnelin the Dutch Indies num- bers about 4,500 men, thus divided : 1,700 Europeans and 900 natives with the Indian marine (25 ships) 1,500 Europeans and 400 natives with the auxiliary scjuadron).

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