Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1899 American Edition.djvu/1190

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834

NETHERLANDS : — EAST INDIES

Production and Industry.

The greater part of the soil of Java is claimed as Governuieiit property, aud it is principally in the residencies in the western part of Java that there are l">rivate estates, chiefly owned by Europeans and by Chinese. The bulk of the people are agricultural labourers. The Government or private landowners can enforce one day's gi'atuitous work out of seven, or more, from all the labourers on their estates ; in 1882 the greater part of these enforced services for the Government was abolished, in return for the payment of one guilder per head yearly. Great power is vested in the Resident aud his European and native officials to enforce a strict adherence to all the laws regulating labour.

The extent of the soil of Java and Madura regularly cultivated by the natives was, in 1896, 6,511,339 acres (If acre = 1 bahu). From 1892-96 the increase of various cultures was as follows, in acres : —

Year

Rice

Maize, Arachis,

Cotton, and various plants.

Sugar- cane

Tobacco

Indigo

Total

1892 1893 1894 1895 1896

4,851,554 4,756,227 5,064,107 5,126,400 4,828,642

3,621,751 3,660,923 3,807,216 3,574,637 3,595,226

167,980 212,017 211,561 923,254 213,349

231,045 237,014 237,014 177,038 258,930

47,805 53,128 54,229 60,231 54,252

8,931,325 8.913,341 9,373,127 9,162,259 8,950,399

Owing to the 'agrarian law' (1870), which has afforded opportunity to private energy for obtaining waste lands on hereditary lease (emphyteusis) for seventy-five years, private agriculture has greatly increased in recent years, as well in Java as in the Outposts. In 1896 were ceded to 711 Companies and Europeans, 814,427 acres ; to 47 Chinese, 30,746 acres ; to 6 natives, 3,031 acres — total, 848,204 acres. Since 1816 no land in Java has been alienated by the Government. The lands, now the property of Europeans, have an 2,069,733 acres, of Chinese, 639,999 acres, and of other foreign Orientals, extent of 34,856 acres.

In 1891 the Government ceased to cultivate sugar. The sugar is grown on lands hired from the natives, or on lands held on emphyteutic tenure from the Government, or on private properties. In 1891 the number of sugar estates was 211 ; in 1896, 198. The yield of sugar in six years has been as follows : —

Year

Tons !

Year Tons

Year

Tons

1892 1893

415,000 ' 483,000

1

1894 480,400

1895 550,508

1896 ' 1897 1

501,122 546,750

The

production of coffee in Dutch India in the years 1892-95

was, in lbs. : —

Year

Government Lands

Free Cultivation by natives

Lands on Em-

pliyteusis and

on Lease

Private Lands

Total

1892 1893 1894 1895 1896

101,323,066 17,265,733 52,043,252 48,333,858 42,164,666

24,386,666 9,467,866 15,671,148 13,564,994 10,663,066

46,094,133 19,365,866 00,840,919 48,559,186 58,309,333

2,956,133 1,754,800 3,277,181 3,765,239 4,928,000

174,759,998 47,854,265 131,832,500 114,223,277 116,065,065