Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1899 American Edition.djvu/1257

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COMMERCE 901

The principal British exports to Rumania are cotton goods and yarn 651,814Z. in 1896; 604,845/. in 1897 ; woollens, 67,303Z. in 1896 ; 59,884Z. in 1897 ; iron, wrought and unwrought, 169,287Z. in 1896 ; 229,083Z. in 1897 ; coals, 155,406/. in 1896 ; 172,957/. in 1897. The leading imports into Great Britain from Rumania are barley, 703,560/. in 1896; 701,009/. in 1897; maize, 720,012/. in 1896"; 956,138/. in 1897 ; and wheat, 1,696,170/. in 1896, 425,020/. in 1897.

Shipping and Communications.

The total number of vessels that entered the ports of Rumania in 1897 was 33,845 of 9,367,850 tons, and the number that cleared was 33,441 of 9,235,535 tons. In 1897 the merchant navy of Rumania consisted of 317 vessels of 73,276 tons, including 54 steamers of 7,099 tons.

The navigation of the Danube is carried on under regulations agreed to at the Berlin Conference of 1878, and subsequently modified at a conference of the delegates of the leading Powers (Great Britain, Germany, Austria, Russia, France, Italy, and Turkey), which met in London in 1883. From its mouths to the Iron Gates it is regarded as an international highway, the interests of the several States being specially provided for. The navigation, except that of the northern branch, is under the superintendence of a mixed com- mission of one delegate each for Austria, Bulgaria, Rumania, and Servia, with a delegate appointed for six months by the signatory Powers in turn The commission has its seat at Galatz, in Rumania. The arrangement lasts for 21 years from April 1883. In 1897, 1,324 vessels of 1,397,917 tons cleared from the Danube at Sulina. Of these, 544 of 855,477 tons were British, the other nationalities represented being mainly the Turkish, Greek, Austrian and Italian.

In 1898 Rumania had 1,800 miles of State railway. The State has the working of all the railwaystin Rumania, and has, besides, under the general railway direction, a commercial navigation service on the Danube and Black Sea.

In 1897 there were 3,062 post-offices, through which there passed 18,498,355 letters, 14,386,506 post-cards, 31,022,339 newspapers, samples, and parcels. In 1897 there were 4,290 miles of telegraph lines, and 10,305 miles of wire, on which 2,336,380 messages were forwarded. The number of offices was 520.

Money, Weights, and Measures.

The National Bank of Rumania on Xoveniber 14, 1898, had a note circulation of 183,977,000 lei, and cash in hand amounting to 85,222,000 lei. The nominal value of the coinage of lUunanian money since 1867 has been : gold, 3,805,800 lei ; silver, 82,700,000 lei ; bronze, 5,345,000 lei ; total, 91,850,000 lei. Ko gold coinage has been issued since 1884, nor silver since 1894, nor bronze since 1885.

The decimal system was introduced into Rumania in 1876, the unit of the monetary system being the leu, ecjuivalent to the franc. The gold lea is the monetary unit. Silver is legal tender up to 50 lei only. Gold coins are 20, 10, and 5-lei pieces.

The metric system has been introduced, but Turkish weights and measures are, to some extent, in use by the people.

Diplomatic and Consular Representatives. 1. Of Rumania in Great Britain, Envoy and Minister. — J. Balaceano. Cmincillor of Legation. — lil. D. Nedeyano.